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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


1  Write short notes on:

v  Logistical packaging

Answer : Concept of Logistical Packaging

Logistical Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. It also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. As explained




v  Global supply chain collaboration


Answer : Supply Collaboration reduces supply chain variability by sharing demand and supply forecast with customers and suppliers across multiple tiers.


Key Features:

  • Ability to share forecasts and confirm capacity with suppliers and customers
  • Complex, multi-tier



v  Free trade zones

Answer : A free trade zone is a designated area that eliminates traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs, and minimizes bureaucratic regulations. The goal of a free trade zone is to enhance global market presence by attracting new




v  Shipbuilding

Answer : Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.

Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred to as “naval engineering”. The construction of boats is a similar activity called boat building.

The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking.


2  Explain the concept of charter arrangement.


Answer : A charter party is the contract between the owner of a vessel and the charterer for the use of a vessel. The charterer takes over the vessel for either a certain amount of time (a time charter) or for a certain point-to-point voyage (a voyage charter), giving rise to these two main types of charter agreement. There is a subtype of time charter called the demise or bareboat charter.


In a time charter, the vessel is hired for a specific amount of time. The owner still manages the vessel but the charterer gives orders for the employment of the vessel, and may sub-charter the vessel on a time charter or voyage charter basis.



3  Write short notes on:

v  Interaction between shippers and conference

Answer : The most common way for a conference, or carrier, to bind shippers is through use of a service contract. In the United States trades various reports indicate over ninety percent of all general cargoes move under service contract. In some markets (although not those involving U.S. ports) a system of deferred rebates is used with the shipper always having money due him on deposit with the conference.




v  Air cargo documentation


Answer : The most important document in air cargo transportation is the transportation contract, or air waybill (AWB). A cargo agent or airline draws up the contract by issuing an air waybill, the form of which is approved by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Instructions given by the shipper, and air transportation



v  Container railway in India

Answer : Indian Railway’s strategic initiative to containerize cargo transport put India on the intermodal freight transport map for the first time in 1966. Given India’s size (almost 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) from North to South and East to West), rail transport is often a cheaper option for all cargo over medium and long distances, especially if the cost of inter-modal transfers can be reduced. Seeing that containerized




v  Freight forwarders

Answer : A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent, also known as a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get goods from the manufacturer or producer to a market, customer or final point of distribution.[1] Forwarders contract with a carrier to move the goods. A forwarder does not move the goods but acts as an expert in supply



4  What is payment? Explain the different methods of payment

Answer : Different Modes or Types of Payment ↓


The payment can be made in many different ways like by giving Cash, doing Telegraphic Transfer or Mail Transfer, via Money Order or Postal Order, Bill of Exchange, Promissory Note, Cheque, Bank Draft, etc.


5  List and explain some of the important documents that are used in international logistics.

Answer : The important documents that are used in international logistic are described below :


1. Air waybill (AWB):


A document that accompanies goods shipped by an international courier to provide detailed information about the shipment and allow it to be tracked. The bill contains the shipper’s name and address, consignee’s name and address, three letter origin airport code, three letter destination airport code, declared shipment value for customs, number of pieces, gross weight, a description of the goods and any special instructions .




6  What is transaction channel? Explain in detail the two important aspects of transaction channel.


Answer : The transactional approach is based on the four traditional elements of marketing, sometimes referred to as the four P’s:


Product — Creating a product that meets consumer needs.

Pricing — Establishing a product price




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