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June 25, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

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June 22, 2012 By: Meliza Category: Suspendisse sollicitudin velit sed leo



June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

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Q1. Discuss the guidelines for settlement of claims by Insurance company.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

General guidelines for claims’ settlement

There are some guidelines that must be followed while settling the claims. These guidelines are general in nature, and are not compiled to be the same always. Therefore, the claim settling authority uses discretion and records reasons. (more…)

Q1. Discuss the role of a custodian of shares.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Custodial services refer to the safeguarding of securities of a client. The activities relating to custodial services involve collecting the rights benefiting the client in respect to securities, maintaining the securities’ account of the client, informing the clients about the actions taken or to be taken, and maintaining records of the services. (more…)

Q2. Distinguish between Eurobond and foreign bonds. What are the unique characteristics of Eurobond markets?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Ans:- A Eurobond is underwritten by an international syndicate of banks and other securities firms, and is sold exclusively in countries other than the country in whose currency the issue is denominated. For example, a bond issued by a U.S. corporation, denominated in U.S. dollars, but sold to investors in Europe and Japan (not to investors in the United States), would be a Eurobond. Eurobonds are issued by multinational corporations, large domestic corporations, sovereign governments, governmental enterprises, and international institutions. They are offered simultaneously in a number of different national capital markets, but not in the capital market of the country, nor to residents of the country, in whose currency the bond is denominated. Almost all Eurobonds are in bearer form with call provisions and sinking funds.

Q1. You are given the following information: Spot EUR/USD : 0.7940/0.8007 Spot USD/GBP: 1.8215/1.8240 Three months swap: 25/35 Calculate three month EUR/USD rate.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM


Forward Points = ((Spot * (1 + (OCR rate * n/360))) / (1 + (BCR rate * n/360))) – Spot

OCR = Other Currency Rate

BCR = Base Currency Rate

Forward points = ((0.07940 * (1 + (0.018215 * 90/360))) / (1 + (0.08007 * 90/360))) — 0.07940

SWAP = -0.00120

Forward rate = 0.07940 – 0.00120 = 0.0782

Customer sells EUR 3 Mio against USD at 0.0782 at 3 month (0.07940 – 0.00120).

Customer wants to Buy EUR 3 Mio against USD 3 months forward.


1. What is Quality Management System? What are its benefits?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Quality Management Systems

Quality Management System is defined as “A set of corresponding activities to direct and control an organisation in order to improve the value and efficiency of its performance.”

An organisation can have various benefits from having an efficient Quality Management System (QMS) in place. The main goal of the QMS is the professional relationship between the client and the supplier working together for mutual profit. To achieve this goal, the business relations of both clients and suppliers should go beyond the organisational boundaries. First understand the system and study each one in detail. The complete QMS should be understood by defining each and every process in detail. This results in the development of good quality goods and services instead of having defective products or services for the products after their development. (more…)

1. Write a note on the following: a. Pareto chart Pareto Chart

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) discovered that:

· 80% of the wealth in Italy was held by 20% of the population

· 20% of customers accounted for 80% of sales

· 20% of parts accounted for 80% of cost, etc. (more…)

1. Write a note on evolution of Quality.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Evolution of Quality

Before the concepts and ideas of TQM were formalized, much work had taken place over the centuries to reach this stage. This section charts the evolution, from inspection through to the present day concepts of total quality. (more…)

1. What are the dimensions of Quality?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

1. Quality of Design: A product is designed keeping in view of the customers’ requirement. For designing a product the manufacturer or service provider should be aware of the specifications of different features required to incorporate in the product. Some of the features to be known for designing a product include — material, dimensions, and characteristics. The quality of the product is introduced by the design of these features. Inspection of the manufacturing processes is of utmost importance in ensuring quality of performance. 2. Conformance to Design: Conformance to design is the degree to which the manufactured product or delivered service meets the parameters that have been incorporated in the design. It verifies that the variability in the process is within acceptable limits so as not to compromise the functionalities that the designer wanted. 3. Utilization Conditions: Utilizations conditions refer to the necessity of the customer being informed / trained so that the purpose for which the product was made is realised by the customer in total, thus enhancing his satisfaction. Instructions, manuals, help-lines, and on-site training by the manufacturers’ personnel improve the perception of quality. 4. After Sales Service: There are so many reasons why products do not function to the expected levels. It may be improper use, unexpected or additional demands, improper assembly or even manufacturing defects. There is a need to rectify these and make products or services perform up to the expected standard. The firm should put in place a system by which these possibilities are anticipated and attended to give customer satisfaction. This is an important, but often neglected dimension of quality. (more…)

Q1.What are the different types of people management skills required for a Project Manager?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution and closing of any project, typically relating toconstruction industryarchitecture, Aerospace and Defence, computer networkingtelecommunications or software development.

Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers. (more…)

Q.1 Describe the types of tools and techniques used in cost management

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Types of Tools and Techniques used in cost management:


  • Cost aggregation
  • Reserve analysis
  • Expert judgment
  • Historical relationships
  • Funding limit reconciliation
  • Cost performance baseline
  • Project funding baseline


Q2. Describe the knowledge areas in project management.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

The Project Management Knowledge areas approach towards project management that is recognized internationally. It can be applied to all types of projects, such as engineering, construction and software.

Integration Management

If each little part of the project is a tree, Integration Management is the entire forest. It focuses on the larger tasks that must be done for the project to work. It is the practice of making certain that every part of the project is coordinated. (more…)

Q1. Explain the importance of planning for projects.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Project planning is an essential part of project management. Successful completion of a project is heavily dependent on effective planning. A project plan allows you to complete a project within a specified timeline and a specified budget. Project planning is fundamental in order to avoid failure and disappointment. In project management, effective planning is absolutely required if the individual or group wishes to deliver a finished project on time and on budget.


Q1. Define the term ‘project’. What are the characteristics of a project?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Project  is an interrelated set of activities that has a definite starting and ending point andresults in the accomplishment of a unique, often major outcome.

Project is that planning in which we try to best under a perfect system for making product or buying any fixed asset or creating services for our customers.  (more…)

1. Explain the problems associated with marketing research.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Marketing research is “the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information – information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs  (more…)

1. List the different stages involved in retail environment analysis.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Retail planning policy illustrates the complexities of managing and regulating the retail  environment. Consumers are more demanding, affluent and mobile than ever before, but a sizeable segment of the population is poor and socially excluded from a range of services, including retailing.


2. List the different roles that a consumer plays while making a purchase decision.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Buyer Decision Process

Now that we have looked at the influences that affect buyers, we are ready to look at how consumers make buying decisions. Figure shows that the buyer decision process consists of five stages: need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and post purchase behavior. Clearly, the buying process starts long before actual purchase and continues long after.

1. Why is it important to consider the behaviour of consumers while deciding on the marketing mix of the company? Elaborate with suitable examples.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Consumer Markets and consumer behavior and its importance and applications for the marketing process.

Consumer buying behaviour:

A. Model of consumer behaviour (more…)

2. Compare and contrast the various types of sales organization structures.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Owing to intense global competition, slow growth in markets and different customer expectations, sales organizations have to reengineer their organization structures and streamline their processes. An inefficient organization structure can frustrate top managers as it may result in strategic plans going astray due to absence of clearly defined responsibilities and reporting relationships. Developing customer-centric organizations, building strong relationships within and outside the organization, modifying the traditional top-down hierarchical structure and introducing cross-functional teams are some steps companies are taking to improve their efficiency and profitability.  (more…)

1. Describe the role of distribution channel. List the factors in the selection of distribution channel.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Distribution channels

Buying a computer in the post, petrol at a supermarket, mortgages over the phone and phones themselves from vending machines are just some innovations in distribution which create competitive advantage as customers are offered newer, faster, cheaper, safer and easier ways of buying products and services.

Without distribution even the best product or service fails. Author Jean-Jacques Lambin believes a marketer has two roles: (1) to organise exchange through distribution and (2) to organise communication. (more…)

Q1. Elucidate upon the significance of financial information in the field of Decision-making in healthcare organisation.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Today hospitals need financial information systems that could be rolled out at each institution not only improved overall efficiencies, but also provided the flexibility necessary to support future growth. The major function of financial information is to oil the Decision-making process. Figure 2.1 shows how it happens. (more…)

Q.1.Discuss the various functions performed by Health information professional

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Health information management (HIM) is the practice of maintenance and care of health records by traditional (paper-based) and electronic means in hospitalsphysician’s office clinics, health departmentshealth insurance companies, and other facilities that provide health care or maintenance of health records. With the widespread computerization of health records and other information sources, including hospital administration functions and health human resources informationhealth informatics and health information technology are being increasingly utilized in information management practices in the health care sector.


2. What are the managerial skills to be possessed by a health services manager?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Management roles and skills.
Managerial Roles

To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has identified ten Sub roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional (more…)

1. Classify hospitals based on objectives, ownership and size.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

It is absolutely essential to increase the level of efficiency for the development and prosperity of an organization. The hospitals, having accepted the responsibility of serving the social interests need to focus on the acceleration of productivity because; cost effectiveness is a must to make the services economical and affordable to the masses (more…)

1. Discuss the healthcare delivery system in India.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

In India health care delivery and medical education are largely governmental functions. India cannot afford a national health service. However, it has a national health policy based on the primary health care approach, with emphasis on rural health in order to achieve the World Health Organization’s goal of “Health for All” by 2000 AD. Health care delivery is represented by the public sector as well as the private sector.  (more…)

Q1. Explain the use of Sampling technique in Internal Audit ( SA500)

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Use of Sampling Techniques in Internal Audit

SA 500: ‘Audit Evidence’ issued by the Institutes of Chartered Accountant of India says: (more…)

Q1. What are the factors that are helpful for effective tax planning?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Factors Affecting the Tax Planning

The following factors are essential for effective tax planning:

1. Residential status and citizenship of the assessee: We know that a non-resident in India is not liable to pay income-tax on incomes which accrue or arise and are also received outside India, whereas a resident in India is liable to pay income-tax on such incomes. Therefore, every assessee would like to be a non-resident in India, if he has any income which accrues or arises outside India. (more…)

Q1. What are the cultural aspects involved in a merger? Give sufficient examples.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM



Any merger and acquisition involve the following critical activities in strategic planning processes. Some of the essential elements in strategic planning processes of mergers and acquisitions are as listed here below : (more…)

Q1. Frame the investment process for a person of your age group.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM


It is rare to find investors investing their entire savings in a single security. Instead, they tend to invest in a group of securities. Such a group of securities is called a portfolio. Most financial experts stress that in order to minimize risk; an investor should hold a well-balanced investment portfolio. The investment process describes how an investor must go about making decisions with regard to what securities to invest in while constructing a portfolio, how extensive the investment should be, and when the investment should be made. This is a procedure involving the following five steps: (more…)

Q1.Explain the need for human resource planning.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Human Resource Planning:

Human resource or manpower planning is ‘the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time, to do things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long-range benefit”. (more…)

. Define Managerial Economics and explain its main characteristics.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Managerial economics is a science that deals with the application of various economic theories, principles, concepts and techniques to business management in order to solve business and management problems. It deals with the practical application of economic theory and methodology to decision-making problems faced by private, public and non-profit making organizations. (more…)

Q1.The Balanced Score Card is a framework for integrating measures derived from strategy. Take an Indian company which has adopted balance score card successfully and explain how it had derived benefits out of this framework.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

The Balanced scorecard

The Balanced Score Card is a framework for integrating measures derived from strategy. While retaining financial measures of past performance, the Balanced Score Card introduces the drivers of future financial performance. (Figure 1) The drivers (customer, internal business process, learning & growth perspectives) are derived from the organization’s strategy translated into objectives and measures. (more…)

Q1. What are the functions of Statistics? Distinguish between Primary data and Secondary data.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Functions of Statistics

Statistics is used for various purposes. It is used to simplify mass data and to make comparisons easier. It is also used to bring out trends and tendencies in the data as well as the hidden relations between variables. All this helps to make decision making much easier. Let us look at each function of Statistics in detail. (more…)

Q1.List the importance of effective communication in the workplace

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

The Importance of Communication in the Workplace

Communication is the nerve center of business today. As you go up the corporate ladder, you will find that communication skills are required, more than technical skills. Communication research has revealed that among the factors most important for managerial success, communication skills rank above technical skills. Several surveys conducted among people who have been successful in their professions have indicated that communication skills are more vital to job success than subjects taken in college.

Communication has assumed even greater importance today, since the new model of business is based on teamwork, rather than on individual action. Teamwork requires greater coordination and communication.

Communication is also required all the more in this age of information and technology. Without communication and human skills, technology will overwhelm an organization. Communication helps to make sense of technology and to manage all this information. For example, communication is required to explain a new computer program or software. While computers can perform routine tasks, jobs like responding to customers’ needs require a high degree of communication skills.

Effective communication serves the following specific purposes in an organization :

  • Greater Awareness of Organizational Goals and Teamwork — When there is open communication between superiors, co-workers and subordinates, there is smooth flow of information regarding the goals of the organization. Coordination between the different departments in particular, leads to greater motivation to work together towards achieving a common organizational goal, rather than working in isolation.
  • Better Employer-employee Relationships — By listening to employees, showing empathy and giving them the freedom to express their opinions without fear of being repressed, a manager can create a climate of openness that leads to better work relationships. Employees will then feel more comfortable in approaching their superiors and discussing any matter with them.
  • Problem-solving — Effective communication can help resolve conflicts between co-workers, work related and performance related problems. Face—to-face communication is especially suited for achieving this task, since it is one to one and highly personalized in nature.
  • Improved Performance — Effective communication by managers at the time of appraising the performance of their employees can point out areas for improvement. A constructive review of performance, through which a manager gives positive feedback and counsels the employee, instead of criticizing him for poor performance, can motivate the employee to perform better.
  • Stronger Link between Managers and the External Environment — Apart from internal communication within the organization, effective communication by managers with external audiences such as customers, government, bankers, media and suppliers leads to a better rapport with them.A manager will be able to understand the needs of his customers, be aware of the presence of quality suppliers of material, of government regulations and of the expectations of the community at large, only through proper communication.

Q6. Mr. Suresh Kumar is the VP- HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Rejani Chandran leading HR consultant. Mr. Suresh is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Rejani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Suresh, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction?

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Job satisfaction:


It is defined as an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice-a-versa.


Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. For an organization, satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination. Job satisfaction is also linked to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line (Brown, 1996).


The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are:


 i) Mentally Challenging Work:


Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction.


 ii) Personality-Job Fit:


People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles.


iii) Equitable Rewards:


Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction.

 iv) Supportive working conditions:

Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light, noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment.


v) Supportive Colleagues:


Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor’s leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer praise for good performance, listen to employees’ opinions and show a personal interest in them.


 vi) Whistle blowing:


Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions.


vii) Social Responsibility:


Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility.


The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction:

\1. Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents.

2. Develop communication skills.

3. Acquire job related skills and try to implement them.

4. Demonstrate creativity and initiative.

5. Improve team building and leadership skill.

6. Learn to de-stress





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Q5. Explain the different leadership styles as per Managerial — Leadership Grid Theory.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

           The Managerial and Leadership Grid:


The Ohio studies led to two dimensions of leadership behaviour-concern for tasks and concern for relations. Almost in the same style, the Michigan University studies made the distinction between job-centred and production- centred leaders.


Blake and Mouton rated these concepts in a framework called the Managerial Grid. They interpreted the concepts in a broad way. Blake and Mouton have used “Concern for Production” and “Concern for People'” in their Managerial Grid on horizontal and vertical axes respectively. Managers may be concerned for their people and they also must also have some concern for the work to be done. The question is, how much attention do they pay to one or the other? This is a model defined by Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s.It included


–           Impoverished management

–           Authority-compliance

–           Country Club management

–           Middle of the road management

–           Team management


The Managerial Grid was the original name; the modifications were made by Robert R Blake and Anne Adams McCanse.1 After the modifications it was named as Leadership Grid.



Leadership Grid — an approach to understanding a leader’s concern for results (production) and concern for people



1. The impoverished style (1, 1). The indifferent Leader (Evade & Elude)


In this style, managers have low concern for both people and production.


Managers use this style to avoid getting into trouble. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes, which results in less innovative decisions. A leader uses a “delegate and disappear” management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles.




1. Does only enough to preserve job and job seniority.

2. Gives little and enjoys little.

3. Protects himself by not being noticed by others.




1. Tries to stay in the same post for a long time.


Examples of Leader speak:


“I distance myself from taking active responsibility for results to avoid getting entangled in problems.”

“If forced, I take a passive or supportive position.”


2. The country club style (1, 9). The accommodating Leader (Yield & Comply):


This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees, in hopes that this would increase performance. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly, but not necessarily that productive.


This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members.


Examples of Leader speak:


“I support results that establish and reinforce harmony.”

“I generate enthusiasm by focusing on positive and pleasing aspects of work.”

3. The produce or perish style (9, 1). The Controlling Leader (Direct & Dominate):


This believes in the authority-obedience. With a high concern for production, and a low concern for people, managers using this style find employee needs unimportant; they provide their employees with money and expect performance back. Managers using this style also pressure their employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. This dictatorial style is based on Theory X of Douglas McGregor, and is commonly applied by companies on the edge of real or perceived failure. This is used in case of crisis management.


People who get this rating are very much task-oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for co-operation or collaboration. Heavily task-oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone’s creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.


Examples of Leader speak:

“I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course of action.”

“I enforce rules that sustain high results and do not permit deviation.”


4. The middle-of-the-road style (5, 5). The Status — Quo Leader. (Balance & Compromise):


It is Organization – man management approach,which believes that the adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out wprk with maintaining morale of people at satisfactory level. Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers’ needs. By giving some concern to both people and production, managers who use this style hope to achieve acceptable performance.


Examples of Leader speak:


“I endorse results that are popular but caution against taking unnecessary risk.”

“I test my opinions with others involved to assure ongoing acceptability.”


5. The team style (9, 9). The Sound / Team Leader (Contribute & Commit):


This is based on the aspect that work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in the organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. In this style, high concern is paid both to people and production. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y, managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. This method relies heavily on making employees feel as a constructive part of the company.


This type of person leads by positive example and endeavours to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams.


Examples of Leader speak:


“I initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment.”

“I explore all facts and alternative views to reach a shared understanding of the best solution.”

Q4. Define emotional intelligence. Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence:

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Emotional Intelligence – EI – is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman’s 1995 Book called ‘Emotional Intelligence’. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John ‘Jack’ Mayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EI principles provide a new way to understand and assess people’s behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more.


Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence


Daniel Goleman and the Hay Group have identified a set of competencies that differentiate individuals with Emotional Intelligence. The competencies fall into four clusters:


–           Self-Awareness: Capacity for understanding one’s emotions, one’s strengths, and one’s weaknesses.

–           Self-Management: Capacity for effectively managing one’s motives and regulating one’s behavior.

–           Social Awareness: Capacity for understanding what others are saying and feeling and why they feel and act as they do.

–           Relationship Management: Capacity for acting in such a way that one is able to get desired results from others and reach personal goals.


The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman (1995). He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences. Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves, whereas social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships.


Personal competence:


It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence, such as, self-awareness, self-regulation and motivation. Self-awareness is the ability of an individual to observe him/herself and to recognize ‘a feeling as it happens’ (Goleman, 1995). The hallmarks of this ability are self-confidence, self- assessment and openness to positive criticism. Self-regulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have negative impact. Trustworthiness, integrity, tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accept change are some characteristics of this ability. Motivation is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through self-control and by moderating impulses as per the requirement of the situation. The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed towards organizational as well as individual goals.


Social competence:


It comprises of two dimensions namely, empathy and social skills. Empathy is the ability to feel and get concerned for others, take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. People with this ability are experts in generating and motivating others. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. People having this skill are very effective in persuasiveness and team management. „Social skill’ is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence assuming that people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can understand and control their own emotion and can emphasize with the feelings of others.




Q3. Distinguish between internal and external forces of change.

June 05, 2012 By: Meliza Category: 1st SEM

Forces for Change:


Forces for change are of two types:


–           Internal forces

–           External forces.



 Internal forces


Any change in organization’s internal factors may also necessitate change. Such a change is required because of two reasons: change in managerial personnel and deficiency in existing organizational practices.


Change in the top management: Change in the top management and consequent change in the ideas to run the organization also leads to change in the system, structure and processes. Old managers are replaced by new managers which are necessitated because of retirement, promotion, transfer or dismissal. Each new manager brings his own ideas and way of working into the organization. The formal or informal relationships may change because of changes in top management. Moreover, attitudes, ideology, leadership style of the person may be different from the earlier one, this will reflect in their actions and decisions. The result is that an organization has to change accordingly.


Change in size of the organization: Change in the organization’s size leads to change in the internal structure and complexity of the operations in the organization.


Performance gaps:


When a gap between set target and actual results (in terms of market share, employee productivity and profit) is identified, organizations face the forces to change and reduce the gap.


Employee needs and values: With changing needs and values of the employees, organizations change their policies. For example, attractive financial incentives, challenging assignments, vertical growth opportunities and autonomy at work may be provided in an organization to attract and retain its effective employees.


Deficiency in existing organization: Sometimes, changes are necessary because of deficiency in the present organizational arrangement and process. These deficiencies may be in the form of unmanageable span of management, large number of managerial levels, lack of co-ordination between various departments, obstacles in communication, multiplicity of committees, lack of uniformity in policy decisions, lack of co-operation between line and staff and so on.


External forces


Each organization has goals and responsibility related to others in its environment. Thus, an organization must not only deal with its environment in conducting its affairs, but also give consideration to the goals of others, as it establishes its goals and conducts its operations. The present-day environment is dynamic and will continue to be dynamic. Changes in social, political, economic, technological, and legal environment force organizations to change themselves. Such changes may result in organizational changes like major functions, production process, labour-management relations, nature of competition, economic constraints, organization methods, etc. In order to survive in the changing environment, organization must change.




Technological changes are responsible for changing the nature of the job performed at all levels in an organization. When there is a change in technology in the organization’s environment and other organizations adopt the new technology, the organization under focus becomes less cost-effective and its competitive position weakens. Therefore, it has to adopt new technology. When the organizations adopt a new technology, its work structures are affected and a new equilibrium has to be established. We have seen that technology has impact on organization structure, organizational processes, and behaviour of people. For example, computers and automation have made significant impact on organizational functioning.


Business scenario:


Due to rapid changes in the business scenario with increasing competition and global economy, the needs and demands are also changing among the customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. Organizations are, therefore, forced to change their operational methods to meet the demands of the stakeholders. Since every organization exports its outputs to the environment, an organization has to face competition in the market. There may be two types of forces which may affect the competitive position of an organization — other organizations supplying the same products and, buyers who are buying the product. Any change in these forces may require suitable changes in the organization.


For example, when Indian economy was liberalized (the process still continues), there were many foreign organizations which entered the Indian market. This forced many Indian organizations to re-align themselves with the new situation. The result is that there have been many cases of divesting the business and concentrating on the core business, acquiring core business, and developing competitive competence to face competitive threats. Similarly, there may be changes in buyers in terms of their needs, liking-disliking, and income disposal for a product. These changes force the organizations to bring those products which meet buyers’ requirements.

Environmental and National factors:


Environmental factors such as economic, political and demographic and legal factors play a vital role in devising organizational policies and strategy. Any change in these political and legal factors may affect the organizational operation. For example, organizations may have to change their employment policies in accordance with the government policy, demand of the non-government organizations and changing economic conditions of a country.


Social changes:


Social changes reflect in terms of people’s aspirations, their needs, and their way of working. Social changes have taken place because of the several forces like level of education, urbanization, feeling of autonomy, and international impact due to new information sources. These social changes affect the behaviour of people in the organization. Therefore it is required to make adjustment in its working so that it matches with people