Sikkim manipal Solved MBA Assignments, SMU MBA, Solved assignments, 1st sem, 2nd sem, 3rd sem, 4th sem, SMU MBA PROJECTS

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1 Capitalisation of a firm refers to the composition of its long —term funds debt and equity.


Discuss the theories of capitalization.


Explain each theory of capitalisation


2 A) The share of Megha Ltd is sold at Rs 500 a share. The dividend likely to be declared by the company after one year is Rs 25 per share. Hence, the price after one year is expected to be Rs 550. What is the return at the end of the year on the basis of likely dividend and price per share?


B) A bond of face value of Rs 1000 and a maturity of 3 years pays 15% interest annually. What is the market price of the bond if YTM is also 15 %.


A Problem


B problem


3 Discuss the sources of capital of a company. Analyse the factors that affect the capital structure.


a) Sources


b) Factors that affect the capital structure


4 A project costs Rs 50,000. It is expected to generate cash inflows as shown in table. If the risk free rate is 10%, compute NPV.


Year Cash inflows Certainty equivalent
1 32000 0.9
2 27000 0.6
3 20000 0.5
4 10000 0.3



5 a) Annual demand of a company is 30,000 units. The ordering cost per order is Rs 20 (fixed) along with a carrying cost og Rs 10 per unit per anum. The purchase cost per unit i.e., price per unit is Rs 32 per unit. Determine EOQ, total number of orders in a year and the time gap between two orders.


a) EOQ


b) total number of orders in a year and


c) the time gap between two orders.


6 Discuss the dividend policy of Dabur India Ltd for the last three years. Analyse the dividend policy of Dabur India Ltd. For three years


Comment on dividend policy




MB0046-Marketing Management



1 “Planning is a process of designing the Blueprint for the future”. In this context, explain Marketing Planning in detail.


Explanation of Marketing plan


Explanation of marketing planning process




2 Explain Henry Assael Model of buying decision behaviour along with the diagram”.


Explanation of Model.






3 “Packaging includes all the actions that involve the development of a container and a graphic design for a product “.In the light of the statement, explain packaging and labelling.


Explanation of packaging considerations


Explanation of Labelling Considerations




4 Explain Brand Extension and its kind.


Explanation of brand extension






5 “Logistics has always been a central and essential feature of all economic activities”. In this context, explain logistics management and its major functions.








6 Write short notes on:


a) Integrated Marketing Communication


b) Direct Marketing


a) Meaning and components


b) Meaning and Advantages







1 Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh of Antwerp University, in a paper presented at the Tenth Anniversary Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, presented four revisions to traditional Management Theory. In summary, the revisions are:


(1) The initiative for the renewal and adjustment of the activities of a firm should come from the different levels in the management hierarchy. “Strategy is not a privilege of top management”.


(2) Firms, especially big firms, are incoherent systems (goals of the different component systems are not simply subdivisions of an overall goal; there are individual, conflicting goals as well).


Some of these differences are manifestations of organizational initiative and vitality. Using information systems and central planning and rule-making to suppress all differences is destructive to organizations.


(3) The most vital “fluid” of an enterprise is the aggregate of its entrepreneurial values. The most fundamental and motivation and control come through these shared values relative to work, quality, efficiency, etc. Management often neglects these values and assumes that the collection and dissemination of information will provide sufficient motivation and control.


(4) Enterprises are open systems; their structure and operating processes are determined by their environment. This means organizations must be designed to continually adjust to the environment.


a. If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized?


b. How should the information system support the planning organization?


A a. Explaining the organizational planning process with diagram


b. Guidelines for planning MIS 2


Comparing MIS plan and Business Plan


(atleast two)


Explaining significant problem of the


Lewis model


2 Information Technology and Computers have brought information age. The spread of Internet


& relative ease of access made Information Breach easier. Our future is not secure, if our information is not secure. Information Resources need to be guarded, protected and controlled.


List the precautionary measures to be considered to prevent cybercrime?


A Listing any 5 measures to prevent cyber crime 10 10


3 a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in number of ways.


List and explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewin’s model.


b. Compare between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach


A a. Explaining the 3 steps of implementing the process suggested by Lewin’s model


b. Comparison between the two approaches atleast two points


4 There is an information explosion in today’s society. There are lot of advantages of DBMS like proper maintenance of the data and maintaining security. Explain the process of data transition using diagram and an example of your own.


A Writing diagram, 2


Own example other than given in the SLM 3 10


Explaining the process 5


5 Write short note on


a. World wide web


b. Voice over IP


c. Intranet


d. Extranet


A a. World Wide Web 2


b. Voice over IP 2


c. Intranet 3


d. Extranet 3


6 Artificial intelligent system functions like a human being and helps a manager in taking quick decisions. Explain the different applications AI using diagram.


A a. Diagram 2


b. Applications of cognitive science 2


c. Applications of robotics 2


d. Applications of natural interface 2


e. Explaining each type with an example 2






1 Discuss the various stages involved in the methodology of Operations Research. Briefly explain the techniques and tools of Operations Research.


Operations Research Methodology


Techniques and tools of Operations Research


2 a. Explain the steps involved in linear programming problem formulation. Discuss in brief the advantages of linear programming.


b. Alpha Limited produces & sells two different products under the brand names black & white. The profit per unit on these products in Rs. 50 & Rs. 40 respectively. Both the products employ the same manufacturing process which has a fixed total capacity of 50,000 man-hours. As per the estimates of the marketing research department of Alpha Limited, there is a market demand for maximum 8,000 units of Black & 10,000 units of white. Subject to the overall demand, the products can be sold in any possible combination. If it takes 3 hours to produce one unit of black & 2 hours to produce one unit of white, formulate the model of linear programming.


Steps involved in LPP


Advantages of LPP


Formulation of LPP


3 a. What is degeneracy in transportation problem? How it can be resolved?


b. Solve the following transportation problem using Vogel’s approximation method.


Factories Distribution Centres Supply
C1 C2 C3 C4
F1 3 2 7 6 50
F2 7 5 2 3 60
F3 2 5 4 5 25
Requirements 60 40 20 15



Degeneracy in transportation problem and resolving it


Computation/Solution to the problem


4 a. Explain the steps in Hungarian method. Differentiate between Transportation and Assignment problem.


b. Find the optimal assignment of four jobs and four machines when the cost of assignment is given by the following table:



J1 J2 J3 J4
M1 10 9 8 7
M2 3 4 5 6
M3 2 1 1 2
M4 4 3 5 6


Steps in Hungarian method


Differences between Transportation and Assignment problem


Computation/Solution to the problem


5 Define Simulation. Explain the Simulation procedure. Discuss the use of Simulation with an example.


Meaning of Simulation


Simulation procedure


Use of simulation with an example


6 Explain the following:


a. Integer programming model


b. PERT and CPM


c. Operating Characteristics of a Queuing System


Explanation of Integer programming model


Explanation of PERT and CPM


Explanation of Operating Characteristics of a Queuing System







1. Write short notes on


Project break-even point

Need for project planning

Project type organization

Rules for network construction

[Project break-even point


Need for project planning


Project type organization


Rules for network construction


2 Describe and compare the project appraisal methods NPV and IRR with example? Which one is better method in estimating returns on investment in a particular project?


Description and comparison of NPV and IRR


Analysis and inference of which is a better method


3. Microsoft Project AMS


The company


AMS is a global business and IT consulting firm to the government, financial services, and communications industries. AMS applies both proprietary and partner technologies and provides solutions through business consulting, system integration, and outsourcing. Founded in 1970, AMS is headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia, and has offices worldwide. The company has approximately 6300 employees.


The challenge


Several years ago, AMS developed an internal project management system called Project in a Box. Based on Lotus Notes, the homegrown system was becoming inefficient and costly to operate, particularly because it was designed as a standalone, non-collaborative product. When a new consulting project was set up, a new instance of the database was created, leading to a chaotic system with literally hundreds of separate databases.


Without any kind of centralised information sharing, it was difficult to use information from one project on another project. The system also prevented AMS’s managers from viewing companywide metrics, such as project completion rates and whether projects were being completed on time and on budget. AMS’s executives needed a system to allow them to have a portfolio view of the health of the company’s projects in progress. A collaborative project management system would allow AMS managers to:


Measure project performance and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) allowing for improvements in on-time and on-budget delivery to customers

Standardise processes

Understand the impact of task dependencies within complex projects

Share information across different product lines

The strategy


Many AMS project managers were already using Microsoft Project as a desktop application, developing project plans and Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) on their individual PCs. However, these individual installations were not networked together and did not feed critical project performance information to executives.


Therefore, in October 2002, when AMS began the vendor selection process for a company-wide project management solution, Microsoft Project was the natural choice, both because many internal users were already experienced with the application’s scheduling and planning functionality and because Microsoft offered the best price point.


In March 2003, AMS chose Microsoft as its project management software vendor and began a pilot programme. In June 2003, AMS selected the public sector product engineering group as the first department to begin the pilot programme. AMS divided this initial pilot programme into four distinct phases:


Phase 1: In early July, AMS installed Microsoft Project for and trained 15-20 project managers working on a common product line.

Phase 2: In late August, AMS expanded the installation to 170 people in another product line within the same group.

Phase 3: In late September, AMS rolled out Project’s decision support capabilities to ten executives, allowing them to mine data for reporting purposes.

Phase 4: If the pilot is successful, AMS will expand the Project programme to 4,000 Users Companywide in a staged rollout.

Key benefit areas


With the pilot programme well under way, AMS is already seeing benefits from Microsoft Project. The system has helped AMS to meet its goal of creating a more collaborative project management system that allows managers to view metrics and create schedules with a view of resources across projects and across the entire organisation. The collaborative nature of Microsoft Project Server allows team members, team leaders, and project managers to complete EVM reporting more quickly, leading to more available time for billable hours. The quantifiable benefits from the Microsoft Project deployment include:


Productivity gains from automated weekly reporting process. Consultants and developers now spend less time each week creating weekly status and performance reports, leading directly to more time available for billable hours.

Productivity gains from automated EVM analysis. Team leaders and project managers now spend less time processing and analysing status and performance reports from team members, allowing them to also have more time available for billable hours.

The Microsoft Project deployment also allows AMS project managers to get a better sense of project status metrics in real time. This leads to fewer project budget and cost overruns, because project managers can quickly make adjustments to keep projects profitable.

Key cost areas


The largest cost area for AMS’s deployment of Microsoft Project was the software license cost, making up 63% of the total cost of the project. Other cost areas over the 3-year period included consulting, training, ongoing maintenance, and personnel costs associated with the everyday use of the system.


Lessons learnt


Overall, AMS’s Microsoft Project implementation went smoothly. AMS’s managers attribute the project’s success to their careful planning and staged pilot programme approach. AMS’s managers recommend that companies considering similar implementations should not underestimate the change management necessary to make


Microsoft Project work effectively. Project managers, especially those without PMI certifications, will often need to undergo training on how to build effective WBS’s, how to plan and schedule complex projects, and how to adjust WBS’s to changing project conditions.


A successful Microsoft Project implementation also requires a high level of communication between team members and project managers. This is especially important with regard to communicating the inputs, steps, expected output, and dependencies of complex business processes.


AMS’s managers also recommended that companies carefully look at their internal processes for building WBS’s, especially the ones for complex projects that require more than 500 tasks. Some of AMS’s projects contained upwards of 2500 tasks, which was well above Microsoft Project’s practical limit of 500 tasks for a single project.


Calculating the ROI


Nucleus Research analysed the costs of software, personnel, consulting, and training over a 3-year period to quantify AMS’s investment in Microsoft Project. Direct and indirect benefits were also quantified over a 3-year period. Direct benefits quantified included productivity gains for both team members and team leaders when creating EVM reports.


Because AMS was an early adopter and because it agreed to participate in trade shows and in marketing ventures, the company received consulting services from Microsoft at no cost, though AMS did use internal consultants for a portion of the implementation.


Companies currently considering Microsoft Project for similar enterprise implementations must take consulting costs into account when evaluating potential ROI. Benefits not quantified because of the early stage of AMS’s Project deployment included reduced project budget and schedule overruns. However, Nucleus recommends that companies considering Microsoft Project evaluate this potential benefit.




What difficulties were encountered by AMS while dealing with information transfer problem in the company? What strategy is used by AMS for dealing with this problem?


Listing of difficulties encountered


Evidence of the strategy used


Analysis of the strategy




4 Form the above case how did the solution help the managers, project teams and the company.


Benefits of the solution to managers, project team and company




5 What are the key steps involved in purchase cycle?


Definition of purchase cycle


Listing of the steps involved in the purchase cycle


Summarisation of each step


6 Discuss the concept of quality and project quality management.


Definition of quality

Overview of project quality management

Summarization of project quality management process









1 How would you distinguish between a management decision problem and a management research problem? Do all decision problems require research? Explain and illustrate with examples.








2 How are research designs classified? What are the distinguishing features of each? Differentiate by giving appropriate examples.


Meaning of Research designs


Classification and features






3 Discuss with the help of examples the four key levels of measurement. What mathematical operations/statistical techniques are and are not permissible on data from each type of scale?


Meaning of Measurement scales


Types of Measurement scales with examples


Mathematical operations/statistical techniques


4 Processing of data involves editing, coding, classifying and tabulating. Explain each of these steps by taking an appropriate example.






5 Distinguish between the following:


a. Null hypothesis and Alternative hypothesis


b. One tailed and two tailed tests


c. Type I and Type II error


d. One way and two way analysis of variance


e. Descriptive and inferential analysis of data




6 a. What is Chi-square test of goodness of fit? What precautions are necessary while applying this test? Point out its role in business decision making.


b. Two research workers classified some people in income groups on the basis of sampling studies. Their results are as follow:


Investigators Income groups Total


Poor Middle Rich


A 160 30 10 200


B 140 120 40 300


Total 300 150 50 500


Show that the sampling technique of atleast one research worker is defective.








Formula/Solution/Interpretation to the problem





MB0051-Legal Aspects of Business


1 “Discharge refers to the termination of contractual relationship between the parties”. Explain the statement along with different modes of discharging a contract.


Explanation of service positioning


Explanation of modes


2 Explain the meaning of Power of Attorney, its types and clause related to registration.








3 Explain the procedure of registration of partnership firms.


Explanation 10 10


4 What are the circumstances under which breach of condition is treated as breach of warranty?


Explanation 10 10


5 Explain the procedure for filing a complaint and admission of complaint in consumer protection act.


Filing a complaint


Admission of complaint


6 Write short notes on:


a) Shares and its classification


b) Meetings and its classification


a) Meaning and classification


b) Meaning and classification









1 What do you mean by Manpower Planning? Describe the various stages & obstacles involved in Manpower Planning.


Definition of Manpower Planning


Explain the various stages involved in Manpower Planning


Explain the obstacles in Manpower Planning


2 Define Resourcing Strategy. Explain the components of Resourcing Strategy.


Definition of Resourcing Strategy


Explanation of all the components of Resourcing Strategy


3 Explain the Selection process undertaken by an organization.


Listing out the steps in selection process


Explanation of the steps in the selection process


4 Define Career Planning Process .Describe the various factors involved in Career


Planning Process


Definition of Career Planning Process


Explanation of the various factors involved in career planning process


5 As an HR, you are asked to focus on the Talent Development Process in your organization .How would you define Talent Development? Explain the necessity of Talent Development from an HR perspective. Explain the model for achieving excellence in Talent Development


Definition of Talent Development


Explain the necessity of Talent Development


Factors responsible for achieving Talent Development 3


6 What are the key HR elements practiced by HR managers in decision making?


Explain any five of them


Explanation of any five key HR elements in decision making




MU0011 — Management and Organizational Development


1 Define Organizational Development (OD).What are the characteristics of OD?


Definition of Organizational Development


Explain the characteristics of OD


2 As an HR, you find that the OD professional in your organization is not competent enough. What are the competencies you will consider in a good OD professional?


Explain any ten competencies required for OD professional


3 What are the characteristics of OD intervention? Explain the Six Box Model in OD.


Describing the characteristics of OD intervention


Explaining the Six Box Model in OD


4 What is Performance Appraisal? What are the purposes and characteristics of Performance Appraisal? Describe the steps in Performance Appraisal System.


Definition of Performance Appraisal


Describing the purposes of Performance Appraisal


Describing the characteristics of Performance Appraisal


Explanation of the steps in Performance Appraisal System


5 Describe the impact of Technology in Organizational Development (OD).What are the benefits of using Technology in the field of OD?


Analyzing the impact of Technology in OD


Explaining the benefits of using Technology in OD


6 Write short notes :


a) Senge’s Approach


b)Nonaka And Takeuchi’s Approach


Explanation of Senge’s Approach


Explanation of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Approach




MU0012 — Employee Relations Management



1 Employees are the most important resource for any company. What do you mean by Employee Relations Management? Explain the different Employee Relations Management Tools applied in organizations


Definition of Employee Relations Management


Explaining the Employee Relations Management Tools


2 As an HR of a Company, you are asked to focus on the causes of Grievance and the Grievance handling procedure. What according to you are the reasons of Grievance? Explain the pre-requisites you will consider while addressing Grievance handling procedure


Explain the causes of Grievance


Describe the essential pre-requisites of a Grievance Handling procedure


3 List and explain the various types of Disciplinary problems existing in an organization


Listing of the Disciplinary problems


Explaining all the Disciplinary problems


4 Discuss the Collective Bargaining Process and its issues


Explaining the Collective Bargaining process


Explaining the Collective Bargaining issues


5 What is a Trade Union and What are its activities? Explain the functions of Trade Unions.


Meaning of Trade Union


Describing the activities of Trade Unions


Explaining the Functions of Trade Unions


6 Write a brief note on the following Acts :


a) Indian Trade Unions Act,1926


b)Employee State Insurance Act,1948


Indian Trade Unions Act,1926


Employee State Insurance Act,1948




MU0013 —HR Audit



1 Write a note on the major Human Resource Development (HRD) Strategies.


Explanation of the major HRD strategies 10


2 Suppose you have joined as an HR and you are asked to carry out the HR Audit process in your organization. What are the methods you will consider while implementing the HR Audit process?


Explain the methods involved in the HR Audit process 10


3 What are the areas of HR Audit? Explain any four of them


Listing the areas of HR Audit.


Explaining any four of them.


4 What do you mean by HR Scorecard? Explain the steps undertaken to approach a Human Resource Scorecard.


Definition of HR Scorecard


Explaining the steps in HR Scorecard Approach


5 Write a brief note on the effectiveness of Human Resource Development Audit as an intervention.


Explaining the Effectiveness of Human Resource Development Audit as an intervention


6 Write short notes on the following:


a)Balanced Scorecard


b)Competency Mapping


Balanced Scorecard 5 10


Competency Mapping 5







MB0052- Strategic Management and Business Policy


1 What is strategy? Explain some of the major reasons for lack of strategic management in some companies?


Meaning of strategy


Reasons for lack of Strategic management


2 Explain the following:


(a) Core competence


(b) Value chain analysis




(a) Core competence


(b) Value chain analysis


3 Describe in brief the following environmental factors which a business strategist considers:


(a) Political factors


(b) Technology




(a) Description of Political factors


(b) Description of Technology as an environmental factor


4 Write a brief note on Turnaround strategy. 10


Brief note on Turnaround strategy 10


5 Define the term ‘strategic alliance’. What are its characteristics and objectives?




Definition of the term ‘strategic alliance’


Characteristics of strategic alliance


Objectives of strategic alliance


6 Write short notes on the following:


a) Competitive advantage


b) Porter’s Competitive threat model




a) Competitive advantage


b) Porter’s Competitive threat model (Five Forces model)




MB0053 —International Business Management


1 “The world economy is globalizing at an accelerating pace”. Discuss this statement and list the benefits of globalization.


Discuss the statement


Listing the benefits


2 Compare the Adam Smith and David Ricardo’s theories of international trade with examples.


Adam Smith’s theory


David Ricardo’s theory


3 Regional integration is helping the countries in growing their trade. Discuss this statement. Describe in brief the various types of regional integrations.


Regional integration




4 Write short note on:


a) GATS (General Agreement on trade in services)


b) ILO (International Labour organization)


a) meaning and role of GATS


b) Meaning and role ILO


5 What is the difference between domestic and international accounting and how will you measure this difference?






6 Discuss the various payment terms in international trade. Which is the safest method and why?


The modes of payment


Safest mode









1 You want to apply for merchant banker. Find out the list of regulations that a merchant banker needs to follow in India.


Merchant banking role




2 Is book building an efficient IPO pricing mechanism? Substantiate your reasons.


IPO process


Book building process


3 The banks are in a bind over the implementation of the new bancassurance proposal as announced in Budget 2013-14. Banks assuming the role of insurance brokers may also lead to conflict of interests where the bank is also the promoter of an insurance company. Discuss the opportunities and threats for the new proposal.


Bancassurance process


Opportunities and Threats


4 Global Finance magazine has named the “ SBI as the Best Trade Finance Bank-2013. SBI has a caption of “Expertise delivered around the Globe! ” Do you agree with this statement.


Explain Trade finance


SBI position in Trade Finance


5 SKS Microfinance Limited, India’s only listed micro-lender has concluded a securitisation transaction for Rs 321 crore with a major public sector bank. Describe the process of securitization.


Concept of securitisation


Process of securitisation


6 Compare and contrast the various instruments of money and capital market that are available in India.


Instruments in money market


Instruments in Capital market







1 Compare and contrast the corporate treasury and a bank treasury.






2 Discuss FEMA violations in India


FEMA violations in India 10


3 Discuss the role of treasury in Kotak Mahindra’s bank.


Treasury operations in Kotak Mahindra bank


4 Explain the organizational structure for Risk Management.


Organizational structure for Risk management


5 Discuss the internal audit machineries subscribed by RBI.


Internal audit machineries subscribed by RBI 10


6 Discuss the role played by SAP and SWIFT in treasury Management.











1 Discuss the Kingfisher airlines consortium loan and name the participating banks in that loan.


Identify the banks


the purpose and


the amount of advance and the status of consortium loan


2 List and explain briefly the various types of letter of credit documents. List and explain the steps that must be taken to evaluate the documents attached with the letters of credit.


Various types of letter of credit documents


Explain the steps


3 Prepare a report on the role of EXIM bank in facilitating pre and post-shipment finance.


Pre -shipment finance


Post shipment finance


4 Prepare a chart listing some of the important Indian banks that have introduced channel banking and Green Banking programs.


channel banking and


Green Banking programs


5 Reliance industries want to raise capital by selling stocks, through the mechanism of book building, by offering Initial Public Offers (IPOs). Discuss the book building process.


book building process.


Methods and guidelines


6 Suppose you are working as risk manager in a private bank. As a manager, discuss the issues and challenges of corporate banking.


Issues of corporate banking


Challenges of corporate banking







1 NBFCs provide loans for short and medium term at a moderate rate of interest. Refer any two NBFCs and discuss the institutional services and products that are provided by them.




Institutional products and services by NBFCs


2 PPPs have great potential to provide infrastructural facilities and contribute towards bridging the gap of demand and supply in infrastructure. Discuss in detail the role of PPP projects in infrastructure.


Introduction about PPP


PPP models


Role of PPPs


3 NABARD is promoting the setting up of agricultural export zones in various states with the help of local state government bodies. Discuss in detail the scheme of NABARD for agriexports.


NABARD’s scheme for agri-exports-supporting activities


Funds for projects


4 Commercial banks have been playing a major role in providing institutional banking facilities. Prepare a report on any commercial bank’s services in the area of institutional banking.


Commercial banks —products in institutional banking




5 The primary role of the IMF is to promote stability of the international monetary system and exchange rates. Discuss some of the projects assisted by IMF.


Projects assisted by IMF 10 10


6 Technology plays a dominant role in effectively managing the business of DFIs. Discuss the role of technology in DFIs.


Role of technology in DFIs











1 Give the meaning forward markets. Explain its features, arbitrage in forward markets, forward markets hedging and speculation in forward markets.


Meaning of forward markets


Features , arbitrage in forward markets


Forward markets hedging


Speculation in forward markets


2 Explain the interest rate parity theory and purchasing power parity with examples.


Interest rate parity theory with examples


Purchasing power parity theory with examples


3 Explain the cash concentration strategies and cash management structures.


Cash concentration strategies


Cash management structures


4 A particular method is used depending upon the circumstances and the legal accounting procedures adopted in a particular country. Explain all the translation methods.


Current rate method


Current /non current method


Monetary method


Temporal method


5 International credit markets are the forum where companies and governments can obtain credit. Bring out your understanding on international credit markets and explain the two very important aspects of international credit market. Refer and give one example.


Introduction of international credit market


Explanation of syndicated loans with example


Explanation of External Commercial Borrowings (ECB)


6 Explain the principles of taxation and double taxation. Give some important points on tax havens and its types.


Explanation on principles of taxation


Explanation on double taxation


Explanation on tax havens and its types







1 Collateralised Borrowing and Lending Obligations (CBLO) is a produt in the money market launched in 2003 by CCIL. Discuss the process involved in obtaining membership of CCIL for CBLO.


Process involved in obtaining CBLO


2 Commodities market is the market in which commodities like oil, gold and agricultural products are traded. Who are the players in the commodity market? How does the commodities move?




Factors that affect the commodity market


3 Suppose you are the manager of a company operating in three countries; India, US and UK.


What are the risks you face relating to foreign exchange?


Foreign exchange risk factors


4 Explain interest rate and various types and various sources of interest rate. different types of interest rate risks


framework for measuring and managing the liquidity risks.


5 The Treasury function of a company plays a key role in working capital. Analyse the interface between treasury and working capital.


Interface between treasury and working capital


6 Treasury products are the product in the market available to the treasury for raising and deploying funds for investment and trading in securities and forex markets.


Forex services


Money products








1 Rating methodology is used by the major Indian credit rating agencies. Explain the main factors of that are analyzed in detail by the credit rating agencies.


Business risk analysis


Financial analysis


Management evaluation


Geographical analysis


Regulatory and competitive environment


Fundamental analysis


2 Give the meaning of the concept of venture capital funds. Explain the features of venture capital fund.


Meaning of venture capital funds


Features of venture capital funds


3 Hire purchase is one of the important concept. There are certain features of hire purchase agreement so explain the points of it. Differentiate between hire purchase and leasing.


Concept of hire purchase


Differences between hire purchase and leasing


4 Explain the concept of Swap. Write down its features and various types of interest rate swap.


Introduction of Swap 2 10


Features of swap


Various types of interest rate swap


5 Elaborate on measuring exchange rate movements. Explain the factors that influence exchange rates.


Measuring exchange rate movement- introduction


Interest rate differentials


Focus on demand supply model


Economic factors


Political conditions


6 Write short notes on:


International Credit Markets


International Bond Markets


International Credit Markets


International Bond Markets







1 Explain the risk management methods.


Loss control


Loss financing


Internal risk reduction


2 An organization is a legal entity which is created to do some activity of some purpose. There are elements of a life insurance organization. Explain the elements of life insurance organization.


Important activities


Internal organization


Distribution system


Functions of the agent


3 Insurance is the most important industry. Elaborate the different types of mediclaim and liability policies.


Explanation of all 5 types of mediclaim policies


Explanation of all 6 types of liability policies


4 Give short notes on :


Pricing objectives.


Pricing elements.


Rate computation


Pricing objectives


Pricing elements


Rate computation


5 Explain the creation and application of insurable interest. Give the differences between wagering and insurance.


Creation of insurable interest


Application of insurable interest


Differences between wagering and insurance


6 Identify the role of insurance in managing risk financing. Explain the importance of insurance transaction. Discuss in different perspectives of insured and insurer


Role of insurance in managing risk financing


Introduction of insurance transaction


Explanation of different perspectives of insured and insurer.







MH0056 — Public Relations & Marketing for Healthcare Organizations



1 What is marketing mix? Explain the four P’s of the marketing mix.


Meaning of marketing mix


Explanation of four P’s


2 List the different methods of qualitative and quantitative research. Explain the unique features of each methodology.


Listing the different methods




3 Elaborate the concept and significance of marketing healthcare.


Explanation of concept of marketing in healthcare


Significance of marketing healthcare


4 Explain market segmentation.






5 Describe SWOT analysis.






Explanation of process of SWOT analysis


6 List and explain the factors that attract corporates to healthcare.


Listing the factors


Explanation of all the factors




MH0057 — Management of Healthcare Human Resources



1 Define manpower planning. Explain the steps in manpower planning.




Explanation of steps


2 Define training. Explain the various steps involved in the training cycle.






3 Discuss the importance of HRM in healthcare organisations.


Explanation of HRM in general


Importance of HRM for the employees, society and the organisation


Strategic role of HRM in healthcare


4 Explain the impact of government on reward management.


What is reward management


Impact of government on reward management


5 Explain the importance of human relations in healthcare services.


Brief overview of human relations in healthcare services


Explanation of importance of human relations in healthcare services


6 A healthcare organization opens a new cafeteria. Consider that you are the HR manager of the healthcare organization and you are given the task of recruiting the staff for managing, cooking food, cleaning the cafeteria and so on. Explain the various methods of recruitment you would follow in selecting the right candidate for the job.


Listing the various processes in recruitment


Explanation of various processes




MH0058 — Legal Aspects in Healthcare Administration



1 Which are the 3 types of inquest’s in India? Explain.


Mentioning 3 types of inquest




2 Explain the relevance of consumer protection act in the hospital scenario.


Definition of consumer


Explanation of consumer rights


Explanation of relevance of consumer protection act in hospital


3 Explain health as a fundamental right.


Definition of health


Explanation of health as a fundamental right


4 What is informed consent? Describe the implications of breaching confidentiality.


Meaning of informed consent


Importance of informed consent


Explanation of implications of breaching confidentiality


5 Describe two important Indian cases that have led to the formation of case laws in medical emergencies.


Explanation of Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samiti Vs state of west Bengal case


Explanation of Paramanand Katara Vs Union of India


6 Explain the various systems of medicine prevalent in India.


Listing the various systems of medicine in India


Brief explanation




MH0059 — Quality Management in Healthcare Services



1 Discuss the dimensions of quality management in healthcare.


Listing all the dimensions


Brief explanation of all the dimensions


2 Discuss the methods of performance evaluation in healthcare services.


Listing all the methods of performance evaluation


Brief explanation of all the methods of performance evaluation


3 Describe Maxwell’s concepts of quality.


Listing of Maxwell’s concepts of quality


Explanation of Maxwell’s six dimensional quality model of healthcare services


4 Explain the implementation of QMS in healthcare organization.


Brief outline of QMS


Listing of steps in implementing QMS in healthcare organization


Explanation of steps


5 Define accreditation and certification. List the benefits of accreditation and certification of hospitals.


Definition of accreditation and certification


Benefits of accreditation and certification


6 Differentiate between Six sigma and Total quality management.


important differences between six sigma and TQM







MU0016 — Performance Management and Appraisal


1 Discuss the principles and dimensions of Performance Management


Explaining the principles of Performance Management


Explaining the dimensions of Performance Management


2 Assume that you have joined as an HR in an organization. The first task assigned to you is to conduct the Performance Appraisal Process. What according to you is its purpose? Describe the entire Performance Appraisal process.


Explain the purpose of Performance Appraisal


Explain the Performance Appraisal Process


3 Discuss the components of a Performance Appraisal feedback. Describe the steps in giving a constructive Feedback


Explaining the components of Performance Appraisal Feedback


Explaining the steps in giving a Constructive Feedback


4 Discuss the skills that a line manager require for effective Performance




Listing the skills


Explaining the skills


5 Describe the modern methods of Performance Appraisal


Explain all the five modern methods of Performance Appraisal


6 Write a brief note on the Employee’s responsibility in Performance


Planning Mechanics


Explaining the employee’s responsibility in Performance


Planning Mechanics







1 Explain the importance of Talent Management Process. Describe the stages of Talent Management Process


Importance of Talent Management Process


Explaining the stages of Talent management Process


2 Describe the top strategies adopted to improve employee retention


Explain the top strategies to improve employee retention


3 Explain the key Compensation principles. What do you mean by Total rewards?


Describe the elements of Total rewards


Explaining the key compensation principles


Definition of Total rewards


Explaining the elements of Total rewards


4 What are the responsibilities undertaken by an HR to ensure compliance to regulations? Explain the steps involved in ensuring safe work environments


Responsibilities of an HR to ensure compliance to regulations


Explaining the steps involved in ensuring safe work environments


5 Explain the key elements of a Talent Management System


Explaining the key elements of a Talent management system


6 Explain the concept of Talent Acquisition .Explain the talent acquisition strategies


Concept of Talent Acquisition strategies


Explanation of the Talent acquisition strategies




MU0018 — Change Management


1 Describe Kotter’s Eight Step Change Model


Explaining Kotter’s Eight Step Change Model 10


2 Define Resistance to change. Explain some of the techniques to overcome Resistance to change.


Definition of Resistance to change


Explaining the techniques to overcome Resistance to Change


3 What do you mean by Organizational Effectiveness? Explain the factors in achieving Organizational Effectiveness.


Definition of Organizational Effectiveness


Explaining the factors in achieving Organizational effectiveness


4 What do you mean by Change Agent? Describe the characteristics of successful Change Agents.


Definition of Change Agent


Explaining the Characteristics of successful Change Agents


5 Explain the Behavioural Approach to Individual Change.


Explanation of the Behavioural Approach


6 Write a brief note on the following:


a)Kolb’s Learning Cycle


b)Peter Senge’s framework on Organizational Learning


Explaining the concept of Kolb’s Learning Cycle


Explaining the concept of Peter Senge’s Framework







1 Write short notes on the following:


Categories of maintenance activities·


Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)·


Advantages of a Sound Replacement Program·


TPM implementation·


Categories of maintenance activities·A


Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF.)·


Advantages of a Sound Replacement Program·


TPM implementation·


2 Explain briefly the functions of maintenance planning. What are the benefits of maintenance planning?


A Listing and brief description of functions of maintenance planning


Listing of benefits of maintenance planning


3 What are the three stages in the lifecycle management of any machinery? Explain in brief the Life cycle management system.


Listing of the three stages·A


Description of the stages with help of diagram(Life cycle management process), examples·


4 Effective implementation of maintenance management in Quarta Technologies Quarta Technologies is a leading manufacturing company in Bhopal. It manufactures six million tubes a year. Each year, production shuts down for few weeks allowing capital investment projects and deep maintenance to be performed. These include process changes and a variety of maintenance activities are executed.


The Challenge


Ramping up to full production capacity after the shut sown was a slow process with attendant quality issues. The equipments used in this organisation were used for several years before it was either discarded or replaced with a similar new machine. From the time the equipment were brought, the production and maintenance personnel accumulated considerable knowledge about the equipment, the manner in which failures occur and the symptoms that it develops before a particular failure or malfunctioning happen. The organisation recognised an opportunity to reduce the quality costs of the annual shutdowns by planning and troubleshooting techniques.


The Solution


The organisation, worked with the plant leadership to improve project and risk management skills by introducing the common process. A progressive learning was done with respect to equipment usage and systematically captures many types of information and put to use. One method was to develop good trouble shooting mechanisms. This mechanism was a structured approach to identify the root cause of the problem that needs some correction when viewed from the maintenance. By successively checking on a set of condition about the equipment, several alternatives pertaining to the possible problematic areas will get eliminated and progressively narrows down to a few. Once this stage is reached, it is possible to conduct a detailed analysis to locate the problem and take corrective measures.


This helped the organisation to implement trouble shooting techniques which reduce the shutdown period and a total of 110 distinct maintenance projects and capital investments were managed. It also eliminated schedule conflicts that would have caused delays. This technique helped them to achieve their goals, ramping up faster to full production and improved team corporation.


What was the challenge faced by Quarta Technologies? What steps were taken by them to reduce it?


A Description of the challenge


Description of trouble shooting mechanism


5 Write short notes on the following:


Routine maintenance·


Inventory planning spare parts·


Benefits of scheduling·


Routine maintenance·A


Inventory planning spare parts·


6 Explain briefly the twelve steps to be firmed up and practiced for successful implementation of the Autonomous principles in a production unit.


A Explanation of the following


1. Introductory Education and Training


2. Cooperation among Departments


3. AM is a job fit


4. Small groups


5. Managers must take the Lead


6. Education and Practice


7. Practice first


8. Actual effects


9. Rules and standards are set by Operators


10. AM audit


11. Quick response


12. Be thorough







1 Write short notes on the following: Integrating Quality into Strategic Management Six Sigma as a quality framework Reliability Types Juran’s Trilogy


A Integrating Quality into Strategic Management Six Sigma as a quality framework Reliability Types Juran’s Trilogy


2 Elucidate different types of Quality Management Systems (QMS). What are the benefits of implementing a QMS?


Explanation of various QMS (including industry and product specific and nonspecific types, examples)


Benefits of QMS


3 ABC is an organisation. The organisation is at the stage of lack of Quality products and services to meet the customer requirements. The organisation decides to develop a strategy and hire people to enhance the quality of its products and services. Being the quality head of the organisation what are the approaches you will consider for initial cost data collection.


Listing of the approaches


Justification why the approach was chosen




4 Write short notes on the following: Quality standards Significance of Quality Control


Automated manufacturing Applications of Design of Experiments (DOE) to product and process design


A Quality standards Significance of Quality Control Automated manufacturing Applications of Design of Experiments (DOE) to product and process design


5 This is a case study about an airline. It states that how at the initial stages the airline was not functioning properly and could not achieve customer satisfaction but however after the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM), the company prospered.


Bryan air airlines started in year 1988 with only 67 employees and with one 18 seater turboprop plane from the south of east of Chelsea to London-Gatwick which carried 5000 passengers on one route (Harrison, 2002). In 1990-1991, the company had 700,000 passengers.


However, in spite of the raise of passengers, the company could not manage cost that the company had lost its money during the expansion of the business. The management decided to bring a brand new management team which suggested a re-launch of the airlines as a “low fares or no frills” airline, closely modelling the Southwest Airlines model in the U.S.


In addition, there was another problem related to quality service. Since it was a “low fares or no frills” airline it could not cater to the customer needs. So the company decided to use TQM and a strategic plan where both the internal and external customers will be given importance and all the main focus will be customer satisfaction. Hence the strategic option that was used by the company for satisfying both internal and external customers and marketing environment was used to attain total quality management.


Hence by implementing TQM and strategic planning the company could satisfy both the clients and the customer. Now Bryan air is one of the leading airlines in the world.


Identify the steps taken by the airline company which made them one of the leading airlines in the world.


A Identification of the quality initiatives with evidence from the case Analysis of these initiatives along the benefits Conclusion


6 Summarise why corporate culture is important


A Brief explanation/definition of corporate culture Instances where corporate culture must be changed Why does culture matter?









1 Write short notes on: Classification of Inventory Models Role of Controls in Operation Cycles Forward scheduling PPC for Different Systems of Manufacturing


A Classification of Inventory Models Role of Controls in Operation Cycles Forward scheduling PPC for Different Systems of Manufacturing


2 Five jobs are to be processed at a work station. The processing time and the due date in days are given below. Determine:


a) The sequence of job according to the shortest processing time.


b) The total completion time.


c) The mean flow time or average completion time.


d) The average number of jobs in the system each day,


e) The average lateness.


Job A B C D E
Processing time in days 6 19 16 11 13
Due date in days 8 22 20 14 14


Calculation of


a) The sequence of job according to the shortest processing time.


b) The total completion time.


c) The mean flow time or average completion time.


d) The average number of jobs in the system each day,


e) The average lateness.


3 Differentiate between FMS and standalone machines. Describe a few Applications of FMS in Industries


Differentiation between FMS and standalone machines


Description of application in industry (pharma, aircraft, automobile, textile etc.)


4 Write short notes on: Material Requirement Planning Forecasting in Operations Off shoring Agile manufacturing


A Material Requirement Planning Forecasting in Operations Off shoring Agile manufacturing


5 Define quality planning. Explain the phases of quality planning


Definition of quality planning


Explanation of phases of quality planning


6 Explain the importance of Supply Chain Management(SCM) and the problems addressed by SCM.


Explanation of importance eof SCM


Elaboration of problems addresses by SCM







MB0038 — Management Process and Organisational Behaviour



(a) A vision statement is a formal statement of what a business wants to be. According to Collins and Porras, a vision statement should have four parts. What are those four parts?

(b) Differentiate between ‘process’ and ‘tasks’


(a) Parts of vision statement



(b) Difference between process and tasks



Planning is called as the cornerstone of management. Define planning and describe the importance of planning. Explain the types of planning.


Definition of planning



Importance of planning


Types of planning



What is meant by ‘span of control’? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. What are the factors that influence the span of control?


Meaning of ‘span of control’



Difference between narrow span of control and wide span of control


Factors that influence the span of control



Define Organisational behaviour. What are the various approaches to Organisational behaviour?


Definition of OB



Approaches to OB



Perception is the way we see and interpret things. Explain the importance of such ‘perception’. What are the factors affecting perception?


Importance of perception



Factors affecting perception



Give the definition and importance of ‘motivation’. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.


Definition of motivation



Importance of motivation


Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory





MB0039 —Business Communication


Nonverbal communication is ambiguous. Explain the statement with example. Also discuss in brief the types of non-verbal communication.


Explanation of statement

Types of non-verbal communication





What are the strategies for effective listening? Discuss each of them in short.


Listing each of them

Explaining in brief





How does general writing differ from business writing in terms of language style and tone?


Aspects of business writing






One has to decide whether it is necessary to have a meeting and then start planning for it. What types of meetings you can call for your business related activities?








What is memo? When you write a memo, what language and writing style will you follow? Explain.



Language and style





Write short notes on:

a) Business letters

b) Group discussions


a) meaning and importance of business letters



b) Meaning and role of GD



MB0039 —Business Communication



Nonverbal communication is ambiguous. Explain the statement with example. Also discuss in brief the types of non-verbal communication.


Explanation of statement

Types of non-verbal communication





What are the strategies for effective listening? Discuss each of them in short.


Listing each of them

Explaining in brief





How does general writing differ from business writing in terms of language style and tone?


Aspects of business writing






One has to decide whether it is necessary to have a meeting and then start planning for it. What types of meetings you can call for your business related activities?








What is memo? When you write a memo, what language and writing style will you follow? Explain.



Language and style





Write short notes on:

a) Business letters

b) Group discussions


a) meaning and importance of business letters



b) Meaning and role of GD






A statistical survey is a scientific process of collection and analysis of numerical data. Explain the stages of statistical survey. Describe the various methods for collecting data in a statistical survey.

Meaning of statistical survey

Stages of statistical survey (Listing and Explanation)

Methods for collecting data






Analysis of daily wages of workers in two organisations A and B yielded the following results:



No. of workers 10 20

Average daily wages (Rs) 30 15

Variance 25 100

Obtain the average daily wages and the standard deviation of wages of all workers in the two organisations taken together. Which organisation is more equitable in regard to wages?

Formula and Computation of Combined Mean

Formula and Computation of Combined Standard deviation

Formula and Computation of Coefficient of Variation








a. State the addition and multiplication rules of probability giving an example of each case.

b. In a bolt factory machines A, B, C manufacture 25, 35 and 40 percent of the total output. Of their total output 5, 4 and 2 percent are defective respectively. A bolt is drawn at random and is found to be defective. What are the probabilities that it was manufactured by machines A, B and C?

Stating the addition rule of probability and an example

Stating the multiplication rule of probability and an example

Applying Bayes theorem and calculating the probabilities






a. What is a Chi-square test? Point out its applications. Under what conditions is this test applicable?

b. Discuss the types of measurement scales with examples.

Meaning of Chi-square test



Types of measurement scales with examples







Explain the Components of Time series.

Meaning of Time series

Components of Time series





a. What is analysis of variance? What are the assumptions of the technique?

b. Three samples below have been obtained from normal populations with equal variances. Test the hypothesis at 5% level that the population means are equal.


8 7 12

10 5 9

7 10 13

14 9 12

11 9 14

[The table value of F at 5% level of significance for 1 = 2 and 2 = 12 is 3.88]

Meaning of Analysis of Variance


Formulas/Calculation/Solution to the problem








Inventory in a business is valued at the end of an accounting period, at either cost or market price, whichever is lower. This is accepted convention or a practice in accounting.

Give a small introduction on accounting conventions and elucidate all the eight accounting conventions.


Introduction of accounting convention

Explanation of all the 8 types of conventions





Write down a table with the accounts involved / the nature of account/its affects/ debit or credit.

Please have the transactions given below and prepare the table as per the instructions given above for each transaction.

a. 1.1.2011 Sunitha started his business with cash Rs. 5,00,000

b. 2.1.2011 Borrowed from Malathi Rs. 5,00,000

c. 2.1.2011 Purchased furniture Rs. 1,00,000

d. 4.1.2011 Purchased furniture from Meenal on credit Rs. 1,50,000

e. 5.1.2011 Purchased goods for cash Rs. 50,000

f. 6.1.2011 Purchased goods from Ram on credit Rs. 2,50,000

g. 8.1.2011 Sold goods for cash Rs. 1,25,000

h. 8.1.2011 Sold goods to Shyam on credit Rs. 55,000

i. 9.1.2011 Received cash from Shyam Rs. 25,000

j. 10.1.2011 Paid cash to Ram Rs. 90,000


Filling in all the details in the table for all the transactions. Each transaction carries one mark(1*10=10)




From the given trial balance, draft an Adjusted Trial Balance.

Trial Balance as on 31.03.2013


Furniture and Fittings 15000 Bank Over Draft 16000

Buildings 500000 Capital Account 400000

Sales Returns 1000 Purchase Returns 4000

Bad Debts 2000 Sundry Creditors 35000

Sundry Debtors 25000 Commission 5000

Purchases 90000 Sales 235000

Advertising 20000

Cash 10000

Taxes and Insurance 5000

General Expenses 7000

Salaries 20000

695000 695000

1. Charge depreciation at 10% on Buildings and Furniture and fittings.

2. Write off further bad debts 1000

3. Taxes and Insurance prepaid 2000

4. Outstanding salaries 5000

5. Commission received in advance1000


Preparation of all the ledger a/c’s

Preparation of adjusted trial balance as on 31.3.2013





The reports prepared in financial accounting are also used in the management accounting. But there are few major differences between financial accounting and management accounting.

Explain the differences between financial accounting and management accounting in various dimensions.


Writing down all the differences between the financial and management accounting




Draw the Balance Sheet for the following information provided by Sandeep Ltd..

a. Current Ratio : 2.50

b. Liquidity Ratio : 1.50

c. Net Working Capital : Rs.300000

d. Stock Turnover Ratio : 6 times

e. Ratio of Gross Profit to Sales : 20%

f. Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio : 2 times

g. Average Debt collection period : 2 months

h. Fixed Assets to Net Worth : 0.80

i. Reserve and Surplus to Capital : 0.50


Preparation of Balance sheet (Includes all the ratios)




Write the main differences between cash flow analysis and fund flow analysis.

Following is the balance sheet for the period ending 31st March 2011 and 2012. If the current year’s net loss is Rs.38,000, Calculate the cash flow from operating activities.

31st MARCH 2011 2012

Short-term loan to employees 15000 18000

Creditors 30000 8000

Provision for doubtful debts 1200 –

Bills payable 18000 20000

Stock in trade 15000 13000

Bills receivable 10000 22000

Prepaid expenses 800 600

Outstanding expenses 300 500


Differences between cash flow and fund flow analysis

Preparation of statement showing cash flow from operating activities








Economic stability implies avoiding fluctuations in economic activities. It is important to avoid the economic and financial crisis. The challenge is to minimise the instability without affecting productivity, efficiency, employment. Find out the instruments to face the challenges and to maintain an economic stability.


Explanation of economic stability






Explain any eight macroeconomic ratios.


Definition of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics ratios





Define Inflation and explain the types of inflation.


Definition of Inflation

types of inflation





Define Fiscal Policy and the instruments of Fiscal policy


Explanation of Fiscal Policy






Investment is a part of income which can be used for various purposes. It is necessary to create employment in an economy and to increase national income. To understand the benefits of income, study the various types of investment.


Explanation of investment

types of investment





Discuss any two law of returns to scale with example.


Law of returns to scale






MB0043 — Human Resource Management



The success of HR plans depends on the accuracy of HR forecasts. What is the meaning of this HR forecasting? Describe the following HR forecasting techniques: (a) Index/ Trend analysis and (b) Expert forecasting


Meaning of HR forecasting



Index/ Trend analysis


Expert forecasting



Write a brief note on: (i) Selection test and (ii) Interviews


(i) Various selection tests conducted by organisations



(ii) Interview process and Types of interviews



What do you mean by management development? What are its objectives and methods?


Meaning of management development





Explanation of Methods of management development — (i) On-the-job and (ii) Off-the-job development methods



Suppose you have joined as HR executive in a software company. The first task you have been assigned is to work on Career planning. What are the various career programs will you consider?


Listing of various career programs



Explanation of each of the career programs



Define performance review. What are the types of appraisal methods? Describe the ways to evaluate an employee individually.


Definition of performance review



Types of appraisal methods


Explanation of individual evaluation methods



Many organisations maintain a disciplinary policy or system to regulate the behaviour of the employees and deal with acts of indiscipline. Describe such various disciplinary action — penalties in business organisations.


Listing the commonly practiced disciplinary actions



Explanation of each of these actions



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