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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


1 Consider that you are a manager in a company and you want to manage a technology that is newly incorporated.


Answer : Effects of technologies on business :


1. Shrinking world:


Technology has made national and international commerce a much more feasible reality. Today, people and businesses can buy and sell with people all over the world. In past history it might have taken months for a letter to go from one party to another. Now, an email can reach someone in seconds, and a transaction can be completed with the push of a button. While this is terribly convenient for some businesses, it does make some people impatient when they actually have to wait for things. Without historical perspective, people can lose touch with how much power and convenience they have at their fingertips.




2 The purpose of forecast is to improve the quality of the decisions related to selection of an alternative from available alternatives and not to force to accept a particular decision.


Answer : Primary forecasting techniques help organizations plan for the future. Some are based on subjective criteria and often amount to little more than wild guesses or wishful thinking. Others are based on measurable, historical quantitative data and are given more credence by outside parties, such as analysts and potential investors. While no forecasting tool can predict the future with complete certainty, they remain essential in estimating an organization’s forward prospects.




3 Write short notes on


a. Technology adoption

Answer : The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its “vital life”. Some technologies, such as steel, paper or cement




c. Technology absorption

Answer : It involves ‘Know-why’ exercises, basic investigations into the product and or process and or systems. This will require unpack aging of a technology package. It requires R&D projects in know-why, optimization and improvement of product/process/systems and related equipments.


Benefits of technology absorption :


The benefits that we get from technology



4 When you choose a new technology, you may have to face some of the question like what are its functional requirements, non-functional requirements and does the technology fit the organization culture?


Answer : : It’s ubiquitous, (and it’s everywhere as well) and some would have you believe that if you’re not using the latest and greatest product, then you’re falling behind. This “you’re not keeping up” sales pitch is very effective at striking at the heart of our insecurities; am I falling behind? Will I lose out if I don’t buy this stuff? Don’t the ads claim that they’ll make me more productive, more efficient, and even more attractive to the opposite sex? How could I possibly live without it? Here’s my credit card.


How do you answer for these questions?



5 Write short notes on


a. Bridging agencies

Answer : In telecommunication networks, a bridge is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for example, Ethernet or token ring). You can envision a bridge as being a device that decides whether a message from you to someone else is going to the local area network in your building or to someone on the local area network in the building across the street. A bridge examines each message on a LAN, “passing” those known to be within the same LAN, and forwarding those known to be on the other interconnected LAN (or LANs).



b. Problem solver model

Answer : In order to correctly solve a problem, it is important to follow a series of steps. Many researchers refer to this as the problem-solving cycle, which includes developing strategies and organizing knowledge. While this cycle is portrayed sequentially, people rarely follow a rigid series of steps to find a solution. Instead, we often skip steps or even go back through steps multiple times until the desired solution is reached.




c. Bar-Zakay model

Answer : The Bar-Zakay model: This model is based on a project management approach, and was introduced by Bar-Zakay {managing partner of films, who focused his practice on personal injury and wrongful death law). As per this model, we can divide the process of technology transfer into four stages:


* Search.

* Adapt

* Implement



d. Schlie, Radnor and Wad model

Answer : It’s a model that seven elementscould make an effect on the planning, implementation and eventual successof any technology transfer project. The seven elements are the transferor (theentityselling the technology to the recipient), the transferee (the entitybuying the technology), the technology which is being transferred, thetransfer mechanism which has been chosen to transfer the chosen technology,the transfer



6 Explain the basic scheme for knowledge based applications




Answer : Knowledge-based authentication or applications (KBA) is an authentication scheme in which the user is asked to answer at least one “secret” question. KBA is often used as a component in multifactor authentication (MFA) and for self-service password retrieval.


Secret questions can be static or dynamic. In a static scheme, the end user pre-selects the questions he would like to be asked and provides the correct answers. The question/answer pairs are stored by the host and used later to verify the end user’s


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