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MBA Semester 3
MK0010 — Sales Distribution and Supply Chain Management
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1220)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1. Describe the role of distribution channel. List the factors in the selection of distribution channel.
Distribution channels
Buying a computer in the post, petrol at a supermarket, mortgages over the phone and phones themselves from vending machines are just some innovations in distribution which create competitive advantage as customers are offered newer, faster, cheaper, safer and easier ways of buying products and services.
Without distribution even the best product or service fails. Author Jean-Jacques Lambin believes a marketer has two roles: (1) to organise exchange through distribution and (2) to organise communication.
Physical distribution, or Place, must integrate with the other ‘P’s in the marketing mix. For example, the design of product packaging must fit onto a pallet, into a truck and onto a shelf; prices are often determined by distribution channels; and the image of the channel must fit in with the supplier’s required ‘positioning’. You can see how Coca Cola further integrate the timing of distribution and promotion in the Hall Of Fame later. In fact, they see distribution as one of their “core competencies”.
Distribution is important because:
Firstly, it affects sales – if it’s not available it can’t be sold. Most customers won’t wait.
Secondly, distribution affects profits and competitiveness since it can contribute up to 50 percent of the final selling price of some goods. This affects cost competitiveness as well as profits since margins are squeezed by distribution costs.
Thirdly, delivery is seen as part of the product influencing customer satisfaction. Distribution and its associated customer service play a big part in relationship marketing.

2. Compare and contrast the various types of sales organization structures.
3. Describe the term “physical distribution management”? Discuss various components of physical distribution management.
4. What are the motivational factors used to motivate sales team?

5. Critically analyse the role of employment agencies and internal transferring.

6. List the roles and responsibilities of a sales manager.

MBA Semester 3
MK0010 – Sales Distribution and Supply Chain Management
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1220)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks

1. What is brand sponsorship? Explain how organizations maintain their sponsorship positions
Brand sponsorship
Somewhere inside the Istanbul headquarters of Turkish Airlines there must be a very large wall. And on that wall are plastered random images of people and organisations that all have two things in common. First, they have absolutely no association with Turkey or its national airline.
Second, they are extremely expensive. I have not seen the wall, but one would imagine an arbitrary assortment of movie stars, supermodels and famous sporting clubs. Written across the top of this wall a large banner probably reads “Turkish Airlines Potential Sponsorship Partners”.
Then, it seems, once a year Turkish Airlines embarks on “marketing planning” by inviting its chairman, Hamdi Topcu, to put on the ceremonial blindfold, stand 20 feet from the wall and throw the all-important Turkish Airlines “Dart of Truth”. The airlines marketing team then rush to the wall to discover who or what they will recruit for the coming year’s sponsorship strategy.
In 2009, the dart landed on movie star Kevin Costner. Despite the fact that Costner had never been to Turkey, ever flown Turkish Airlines, or had ever expressed even the most passing interest in Turkish Airlines – the “Dart of Truth” was infallible. Costner was contacted out of the blue, and paid a small fortune to fly to Istanbul and make a series of TV and print ads in which he was made to “feel like a star” on Turkish Airlines business class service.
Sponsorships: Threatening Brands?
What is the link between financially strapped companies and expensive sporting tie-ups?
Back in 2004, in an earlier, more innocent age, Northern Rock was proud to spend £25m on sponsoring Newcastle United FC. Northern Rock chief executive Adam Applegarth looked ahead to five successful seasons together and spoke of ‘a long-term relationship’. Barely three years later, everything had turned sour.

2. Explain the different factors affecting cost of a warehouse? What are the various types of warehouses and their uses?

3. List the various modes of transportation available in India? List the advantages and disadvantages.

4. Define the term logistical operations? List the major components of logistical operations?

6. Describe the various types of retailers and briefly explain the concept of wholesaling.
The retail business offers products to consumers through a variety of venues. You can purchase just about anything you need in a mall, grocery store, discount warehouse or online. Some retailers sell exclusively through catalogs, and a few still sell products door to door. There are many different types of retailers offering goods and services both online and in your neighbourhood.

MBA Semester 3
MK0011 — Consumer Behaviour
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1. Why is it important to consider the behaviour of consumers while deciding on the marketing mix of the company? Elaborate with suitable examples.
Consumer Markets and consumer behavior and its importance and applications for the marketing process.
Consumer buying behaviour:
A. Model of consumer behaviour
Consumers make many buying decisions every day. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in great detail to answer questions about what consumers buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy. Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they buy, where, and how much. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behavior is not so easy–the answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s head.
The central question for marketers is: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? The company that really understands how consumers will respond to different product features, prices, and advertising appeals has a great advantage over its competitors. The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior shown in Figure . This figure shows that marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer’s “black box” and produce certain responses. Marketers must figure out what is in the buyer’s black box.3
Model of consumer behavior
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Other stimuli include major forces and events in the buyer’s environment: economic, technological, political, and cultural. All these inputs enter the buyer’s black box,

where they are turned into a set of observable buyer responses: product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing, and purchase amount.
2. List the different roles that a consumer plays while making a purchase decision.
Buyer Decision Process

3. Distinguish between differentiated, undifferentiated and concentrated marketing.
Explain the concept with the help of suitable examples.
a) Undifferentiated Marketing
4. Explain the different Positioning approaches used by the companies Give examples.
5. Briefly explain the four personality types as identified by Carl Jung.

6 Explain the concept of ideal and actual self. Give suitable examples.
MBA Semester 3
MK0011 — Consumer behaviour
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks

1. List the important factors that influence consumer perceptions
Consumer Perception

What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. IE we chose what info we pay attention to, organize it and interpret it.
Information inputs are the sensations received through sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch.
Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. More likely if it is linked to an event, satisfies current needs, intensity of input changes (sharp price drop).
Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information, inconsistent with beliefs.
Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another), have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. A current example…MCI and AT&T…do you ever get confused?
Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs, forgets those that don’t.
Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17,000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned. Exposed to 1,500 advertisements per day. Can’t be expected to be aware of all these inputs, and certainly will not retain many.
Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar, on knowledge that is stored in the memory.
Handout…South Africa wine….
Problems marketing wine from South Africa. Consumers have strong perceptions of the country, and hence its products.

2. List the differences between absolute threshold and differential threshold? Discuss the implications of Weber’s Law.

3. Recommend any three marketing situations where the principle of grouping can be used with advantage.
4. What are attitudes? Discuss three component models of attitudes

6. Discuss the different types of innovations with examples. Explain the role of communication and culture in diffusion of innovation.
Different Types of Innovation

MBA Semester 3
MK0012 — Retail Marketing
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1. List the different stages involved in retail environment analysis.
Retail planning policy illustrates the complexities of managing and regulating the retail environment. Consumers are more demanding, affluent and mobile than ever before, but a sizeable segment of the population is poor and socially excluded from a range of services, including retailing.
Retailers have to respond to consumers’ needs by providing a retail offer through appropriate formats. For many ‘big box’ retailers and category killer specialists, this means large store formats in out-of-town sites. In much of Europe, such developments are viewed by many governments as a threat to the viability of existing town centres and planning regulations have been developed accordingly. The problem here is that the lobbying by retailers and local authorities is geared to maintaining the rigid status quo hierarchy of shopping centre provision. Is this in the public interest, or is it a form of protectionism of existing retail structures? The creation of regeneration partnerships to benefit areas deprived of retail investment is a positive step to address the issue of ‘food deserts’ and other accusations that large format developments cater for the wealthier, more mobile segments of the population. Clearly, to achieve maximum operating efficiencies, these retailers need large sites, which are unlikely to be available in town centres. Policy makers must therefore ensure that restrictive policies on large format development do not impede retail competition, which will lead to higher prices and adverse affects on economies.
2. Briefly explain GAP model of service quality
The gaps model of service quality was first developed by a group of authors, Parasuraman Zeithaml, Berry, at Texas M and North Carolina Universities, in 1985 (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry). Based on exploratory studies of service such as executive interviews and focus groups in four different service businesses the authors proposed a conceptual model of service quality indicating that consumers’ perception toward a service quality depends on the four gaps existing in organization — consumer environments. They further developed in-depth measurement scales for service quality in a later year.
The figure below shows the “GAP” model of service quality from Parasuraman et al. (Zithaml & Bitner 1996). This model offers an integrated view of the consumer-company relationship. It is based on substantial research amongst a number of service providers. In common with the Grönroos model it shows the perception gap (Gap 5) and outlines contributory factors. In this case expected service is a function of word of mouth communication, personal need and past experience, and perceived service is a product of service delivery and external communications to consumers.
3. Discuss are the various types of retail store locations. What are their pros and cons?

4. List the factors influence retail store image. Discuss the elements of an interior store design
5. Write short note on visual merchandising.

MBA Semester 3
MK0012 — Retail Marketing
(4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1.What is positioning? Discuss various positioning approaches
Positioning is defined as the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the target market’s mind.
For Example — What brand occurs in your mind when I say walkman? I guess Sony. Similarly what do you think of when I say photocopies? I think Xerox or Cannon. Thus these brands have positioned themselves in the mind of their customer such that whenever the generic product is mentioned immediately these brands come into our mind. Now if I ask most innovative company — I guess you will name APPLE : I agree with you.

Thus Positioning can be defined with the following core points
1. Positioning is a final step in the Segmentation Targeting and Positioning step
2. Positioning requires a holistic approach and is one of the most useful tools for marketers.
3. Positioning is almost completely about perception. How the customer perceives your product or brand is what positioning is all about. Thus the best mass marketers like to use marketing tactics which touch the whole market (Example — Vodafone Zoozoo’s)
4. Perceptual mapping is generally used to determine the Positioning of a product in the target market.
5. Positioning can make or break a brand. A rightly perceived product / company gets lots of returns from the market as compared to a wrongly perceived company. Example — Airtel vs Reliance telecom
6. Communication is of ultimate importance in positioning. The right communication can go a long way in determining the perception of a product / brand.
7. Finally, Attributes — tangible or intangible (in case of services) are necessary to be involved in the product which increase the positioning of the product in the customers mind.
Positioning is a powerful tool that allows you to create an image. And image is the outward representation of being who you want to be, doing what you want to do, and having what you want to have. Positioning yourself can lead to personal fulfillment. Being positioned by someone else restricts your choices and limits your opportunities.
That’s why it’s so important for entrepreneurs to transform their passion into a market position. If you don’t define your product or service, a competitor will do it for you. Your position in the market place evolves from the defining characteristics of your product. The primary elements of positioning are:
– Pricing. Is your product a luxury item, somewhere in the middle, or cheap, cheap, cheap.

– Quality. Total quality is a much used and abused phrase. But is your product well produced? What controls are in place to assure consistency? Do you back your quality claim with customer-friendly guarantees, warranties, and return policies?

– Service. Do you offer the added value of customer service and support? Is your product customized and personalized?

– Distribution. How do customers obtain your product? The channel or distribution is part of positioning.

– Packaging. Packaging makes a strong statement. Make sure it’s delivering the message you intend.

2 . Write a short note on- psychographic segmentation.

3. Briefly describe the criteria for effective segmentation.
4. How and when can demographic and benefit segmentation be used to maximum efficiency?

5. Briefly discuss the channel strategies adopted by the retailers.
6. Differentiate between relationship marketing and transactional marketing
MBA Semester 3
MK0013 — Market Research (4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1. Explain the problems associated with marketing research.
Marketing research is “the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information – information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the results, and communicates the findings and their implications.”[1] Marketing research is the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data about issues relating to marketing products and services. The goal of marketing research is to identify and assess how changing elements of the marketing mix impacts customer behavior. The term is commonly interchanged with market research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that market research is concerned specifically with markets, while marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes.[2]
Marketing research is often partitioned into two sets of categorical pairs, either by target market:
 Consumer marketing research, and
 Business-to-business (B2B) marketing research
Or, alternatively, by methodological approach:
 Qualitative marketing research, and
 Quantitative marketing research
Consumer marketing research is a form of applied sociology that concentrates on understanding the preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers in a market-based economy, and it aims to understand the effects and comparative success of marketing campaigns. The field of consumer marketing research as a statistical science was pioneered by Arthur Nielsen with the founding of the ACNielsen Company in 1923.[3]
Thus, marketing research may also be described as the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing

2. Explain the role of Marketing research in “decision-making” process
3. Describe consumer research process in detail.
4. What is the importance of customer research?

6. List the functions of marketing information system.

MBA Semester 3
MK0013 — Market Research (4 credits)
(Book ID: B1221)
Marks 60
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

1. Describe the relation between research design and marketing decision process
Decision Making
Decision making is often seen as the centre of what managers do, something that engages most of a managers time. It is one of the areas that information systems have sought most of all to affect (with mixed success). Decision making can be divided into 3 types: strategic, management control and operations control.
Strategic decision making: This level of decision making is concerned with deciding on the objectives, resources and policies of the organisation. A major problem at this level of decision making is predicting the future of the organisation and its environment, and matching the characteristics of the organisation to the environment. This process generally involves a small group of high-level managers who deal with very complex, non-routine problems.
For example, some years ago, a medium-sized food manufacturer in an East African country faced strategic decisions concerning its range of pasta products. These products constituted a sizeable proportion of the company’s sales turnover. However, the company was suffering recurrent problems with the poor quality of durum wheat it was able to obtain resulting in a finished product that was too brittle. Moreover, unit costs were shooting up due to increasingly frequent breakdowns in the ageing equipment used in pasta production. The company faced the decision whether to make a very large investment in new machinery or to accept the offer of another manufacturer of pasta products, in a neighbouring country, that it should supply the various pasta products and the local company put its own brand name on the packs. The decision is strategic since the decision has implications for the resource base of the enterprise, i.e. its capital equipment, its work force, its technological base etc. The implications of strategic decisions extend over many years, often as much as ten to fifteen years.
Management control decisions: Such decisions are concerned with how efficiently and effectively resources are utilised and how well operational units are performing. Management control involves close interaction with those who are carrying out the tasks of the organisation; it takes place within the context of broad policies and objectives set out by strategic planners.
An example might be where a transporter of agricultural products observes that his/her profits are declining due to a decline in the capacity utilisation of his/her two trucks. The manager (in this case the owner) has to decide between several alternative courses of action, including: selling of trucks, increasing promotional activity in an attempt to sell the spare carrying capacity, increasing unit carrying charges to cover the deficit, or seeking to switch to carrying products or produce with a higher unit value where the returns to transport costs may be correspondingly higher. Management control decisions are more tactical than strategic.
Operational control decisions: These involve making decisions about carrying out the ” specific tasks set forth by strategic planners and management. Determining which units or individuals in the organisation will carry out the task, establishing criteria of completion and resource utilisation, evaluating outputs – all of these tasks involve decisions about operational control.
The focus here is on how the enterprises should respond to day-to-day changes in the business environment. In particular, this type of decision making focuses on adaptation of the marketing mix, e.g. how should the firm respond to an increase in the size of a competitor’s sales force? should the product line be extended? should distributors who sell below a given sales volume be serviced through wholesalers rather than directly, and so on.
Within each of these levels, decision making can be classified as either structured or unstructured. Unstructured decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide insights into the problem definition. They are novel, important, and non-routine, and there is no well-understood procedure for making them. In contrast, structured decisions are repetitive, routine,

2 . What are the factors affecting cost of a warehouse? What are the various types of warehouses and their uses?


3. Explain research process Differentiate between Causal and Experimental design.

4. List the benefits and limitations of focus group interviews
5. Explain latest techniques of qualitative research..
6. Explain multidimensional scaling

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a set of related statistical techniques often used in information visualization for exploring similarities or dissimilarities in data. MDS is a special case of ordination. An MDS algorithm starts with a matrix of item—item similarities, then assigns a location to each item in N-dimensional space, where N is specified a priori. For sufficiently small N, the resulting locations may be displayed in a graph or 3D visualisation.

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