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QM0018 – Quality Development Methods

QM0018 – Quality Development Methods


Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 4

QM0018 – Quality Development Methods


Q1.Define strategic quality management. Discuss the elements of strategic quality management.

 (Meaning — 4 marks, Elements — 6 marks) 10 marks


Answer :  Strategic quality management:


The BSI Standards defined it as a management philosophy and company practices that aim to harness the human and material resources of an organization in the most effective way to achieve the objectives of the organization. In addition, the BSI used the term total quality management (TQM) instead of strategic quality management. As long as they recognize the strategic importance of quality and quality planning, both terms can be used interchangeably. In this sense, we recognize the significance of strategic value of quality as Garvin did in implementing the quality improvement strategies, and use in this paper the terms “total” and “strategic” interchangeably.


Q2. Explain the types, advantages and drawbacks of qualitative research.

(Types – 4 marks, Advantages — 3 marks, Drawbacks — 3 marks) 10 marks


Answer : Types of qualitative research :


1.Basic/pragmatic qualitative research, which involves using an eclectic approach taken up to best match the research question at hand.


2. Ethnographic Research, used for investigating cultures by collecting and describing data that is intended to help in the development of a theory.


3. Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research, based or “grounded” in the observations or data from which it was developed.


Q3. Define skill based quality management. Explain the guidelines of change management.

(Meaning — 4 marks, Guidelines — 6 marks) 10 marks


Answer : Skill based quality management:


The idea of using skills to assure quality is not new, even amongst the quality community. There is a  section in the ISO 9000 family of standards which relates to what it calls  “special processes” (see Hoyle, 1994), processes where the quality of the  output is not susceptible to assurance through normal methods of  inspection. The distinguishing factor of our approach is the embedding of  this idea into an integrated model.  The quality of the outputs of special processes is assured in our model  through the determination of the abilities and competence needed to carry  them out, a process known as “qualification.


Q4. Explain the modeling techniques of value engineering.

 (Meaning — 2 marks, Modelling Techniques — 8 marks) 10 marks


Answer : Value engineering :


Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the “value” of goods or products and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as a consequence of pursuing value improvements. Value engineering is also referred to as “value management” or “value methodology” (VM), and “value analysis” (VA).



Q5. Elucidate the key features of kaizen. Discuss the implementation of kaizen.

 (Meaning – 2 marks, Features — 4 marks, Implementation — 4 marks) 10 marks


Answer : Meaning of Kaizen :


Kaizen , or ‘Continuous Improvement’ is a policy of constantly introducing small incremental changes in a business in order to improve quality and/or efficiency. This approach assumes that employees are the best people to identify room for improvement, since they see the processes in action all the time. A firm that uses this approach therefore has to have a culture that encourages and rewards employees for their contribution to the process.

Kaizen can operate at the level of an individual, or through Kaizen Groups or Quality Circles which are groups specifically brought together to identify potential improvements.


Q6. Explain Just in Time and Kanban.

 (Explanation — 5 marks each) 10 marks


Answer : Just in time :


Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (between different points, which are involved in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually ‘tickets’ but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization’s return on investment, quality, and efficiency.


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