# MB0048- OPERATIONS RESEARCH

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE SPRING 2014 PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0048- OPERATIONS RESEARCH SEMESTER 2 BK ID B1631 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

1 Discuss the various stages involved in the methodology of Operations Research. Briefly explain the techniques and tools of Operations Research.

Answer : The basic dominant characteristic feature of operations research is that it employs mathematical representations or models to analyse problems. This distinct approach represents an adaptation of the scientific methodology used by the physical sciences. The scientific method translates a given problem into a mathematical representation which is solved and retransformed into the

2a. Explain the graphical method of solving Linear Programming Problem.

Answer : The procedure for mathematical formulation of a linear programming problem consists of the following major steps:

A problem consists of a linear function of variable called objective function subject to set of linear equation or inequalities called constraints, are known as linear programming problem.

In LP model the various parameters namely the objective function coefficients, R.H.S, coefficients of the constraints and resource values are certainly known and their value do not change with time. Thus the profit or cost per unit of product, availability of labour and material, market demand is known with certainty

b. A paper mill produces two grades of paper viz., X and Y. Because of raw material restrictions, it cannot produce more than 400 tons of grade X paper and 300 tons of grade Y paper in a week. There are 160 production hours in awake. It requires 0.20 and 0.40 hours to produce a ton of grade X and Y papers. The mill earns a profit of Rs. 200 and Rs. 500 per ton of grade X and Y paper

respectively. Formulate this as a Linear Programming Problem.

Answer : Objective function is to maximize the profit

Thus Max. Z=200X1+500X2

Constraints 1.Raw

3 a. Explain how to solve the degeneracy in transportation problems.

Answer :A basic solution to an m-origin, n destination transportation problem can have at the most m+n-1 positive basic variables (non-zero), otherwise the basic solution degenerates. It follows that whenever the number of basic cells is less than m + n — 1, the transportation problem is a degenerate one.

The degeneracy can develop in two ways:

Case 1 – The degeneracy develops while

b.  Explain the procedure of MODI method of finding solution through optimality test.

Answer : Transportation Algorithm for Minimization Problem (MODI Method)

After evaluating an initial basic feasible solution to a transportation problem, the next question is how to get the optimum solution. The basic techniques are illustrated as follows:

1. Determine the net evaluations for the non—basic variables (empty cells)

2. Determine the entering variable

4 a. Explain the steps involved in Hungarian method of solving Assignment problems.

Answer : Steps in Hungarian method

Hungarian method algorithm is based on the concept of opportunity cost and is more efficient in solving assignment problems. The following steps are adopted to solve an AP using the Hungarian method algorithm.

Step 1: Prepare row ruled matrix by selecting the minimum values for each row and subtract it from the other elements of the row.

b. Find the optimal assignment of four jobs and four machines when the cost of assignment is given by the following table:

Computation/Solution to the problem: Applying Hungarian method

Q5.a. Explain the Monte Carlo Simulation.

Answer: Monte Carlo simulation is a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making. The technique is used by professionals in such widely disparate fields as finance, project management, energy, manufacturing, engineering, research and development, insurance, oil & gas, transportation, and the environment.

Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for

b. A Company produces 150 cars. But the production rate varies with the distribution.

 Production Rate Probability 147 0.05 148 0.10 149 0.15 150 0.20 151 0.30 152 0.15 153 0.05

At present the track will hold 150 cars. Using the following random numbers determine the average number of cars waiting for shipment in the company and average number of empty space in the truck. Random Numbers 82, 54, 50, 96, 85, 34, 30, 02, 64, 47.  5 +5 = 10 marks(200 — 250 words each)

 Production Rate Probability Cum. Probability Random Numbers 147 0.05 0.05 00-04 148 0.10 0.15 05-14

6 a. Explain the dominance principle in game theory.

Answer : In game theory, strategic dominance (commonly called simply dominance) occurs when one strategy is better than another strategy for one player, no matter how that player’s opponents may play. Many simple games can be solved using dominance. The opposite, intransitivity, occurs in games where one strategy may be better or worse than another strategy for one player, depending on how the player’s opponents may play.

Terminology

b. Describe the Constituents of a Queuing System.

Answer : Characteristics of a queuing system that impact its performance, for example, queuing requirements of a restaurant will depend upon factors like:

• How do customers arrive in the restaurant? Are customer arrivals more during lunch and dinnertime (a regular restaurant)? Or is the customer traffic more uniformly distributed (a cafe)?
• How much time do customers spend in the restaurant? Do customers typically leave the restaurant in a fixed amount of time? Does the customer service time vary with the type of customer?
•

c. Differentiate between PERT and CPM

Answer : Project management is an important part of every business enterprise. Whenever a new product or service is launched; when embarking on a marketing campaign; or when organizing any new projects; project management is needed to make everything organized and successful.

As all projects consume resources such as materials, time, people, and money; starting one would entail an effective project management team and the right techniques to accomplish them, especially those projects that are very

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# MB0047- MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE SPRING 2014 PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0047- MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM SEMESTER 2 BK ID B1630 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh of Antwerp University, in a paper presented at the Tenth

Anniversary Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management,

presented four revisions to traditional Management Theory. In summary, the revisions are:

(1) The initiative for the renewal and adjustment of the activities of a firm should come from

the different levels in the management hierarchy. “Strategy is not a privilege of top

management”.

(2) Firms, especially big firms, are incoherent systems (goals of the different component

systems are not simply subdivisions of an overall goal; there are individual, conflicting goals

as well).

Some of these differences are manifestations of organizational initiative and vitality. Using

information systems and central planning and rule-making to suppress all differences is

destructive to organizations.

(3) The most vital “fluid” of an enterprise is the aggregate of its entrepreneurial values. The

most fundamental and motivation and control come through these shared values relative to

work, quality, efficiency, etc. Management often neglects these values and assumes that the

collection and dissemination of information will provide sufficient motivation and control.

(4) Enterprises are open systems; their structure and operating processes are determined by

their environment. This means organizations must be designed to continually adjust to the

environment.

a. If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized?

b. How should the information system support the planning organization?

Ans : a. Explaining the organizational planning process with diagram

It should be organized by the cooperation, quality work and efficiency. The enterprises should cope up or adjust to the new environment so that all the main goals of an enterprises will be accomplished within the work. The information system should support the planning organization in the form of combing the information system with the planning and rule making of an enterprise. It should be in different values that must be shared all together in order for it to supress all the differences of the ideas and combine the positive

Q.2 Information Technology and Computers have brought information age. The spread of Internet

& relative ease of access made Information Breach easier. Our future is not secure, if our

information is not secure. Information Resources need to be guarded, protected and controlled.

List the precautionary measures to be considered to prevent cybercrime?

Ans : 5 measures to prevent cyber crime :

1. Technical:

There are a variety of different technical countermeasures that can be deployed to thwart cybercriminals and harden systems against attack. Firewalls, network or host based, are considered the first line of defense in securing a computer network by setting Access Control Lists (ACLs) determining which what services and traffic can pass through the check point.

Antivirus can be used to prevent propagation of malicious

Q.3 a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in number of ways.

List and explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewin’s model.

b. Compare between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach

Ans: a. Explaining the 3 steps of implementing the process suggested by Lewin’s model :

For Lewin, the process of change entails creating the perception that a change is needed, then moving toward the new, desired level of behavior and finally, solidifying that new behavior as the norm. The model is still widely used and serves as the basis for many modern change models.

1.Unfreezing:

Before you can cook a meal that has been frozen, you need to defrost or thaw it out. The same can be said of change. Before a change can be implemented, it must go through the initial step of unfreezing. Because many people will naturally resist

Q.4 There is an information explosion in today’s society. There are lot of advantages of DBMS

like proper maintenance of the data and maintaining security. Explain the process of data

transition using diagram and an example of your own.

Ans: DFD provides an overview of the data entering and leaving the system. It also shows the entities that are providing or receiving that data. These correspond usually to the people that are using the system we will develop. The context diagram helps to define our system boundary to show what is included in, and what is excluded from, our system.

The diagram consists of a rectangle representing the system boundary, the external entities interacting with the system and the data which flows into and out of the system.

Luckily there are only four different symbols that are normally used on a DFD. The elements represented are:

–             External entities

Q.5 Write short note on

a. World wide web

b. Voice over IP

c. Intranet

d. Extranet

Ans: a. World Wide Web :

The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3 commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and at that time employee of CERN, a European research organisation near Geneva, wrote

Q.6 Artificial intelligent system functions like a human being and helps a manager in taking quick

decisions. Explain the different applications AI using diagram.

Ans : 1. Applications of cognitive science :

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive

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# MB0049 — PROJECT MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE SPRING 2014 PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB 0049 — PROJECT MANAGEMENT BK ID B1632 SEMESTER 2 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Write short notes on :

Commercial and economic feasibility

Technical feasibility

Ans : Commercial and economic feasibility :

The purpose of the economic feasibility assessment is to determine the positive economic benefits to the organization that the proposed system will provide. It includes quantification and identification of all the benefits expected. This assessment typically involves a cost/ benefits analysis. Economic analysis could also be referred to

Technical feasibility :

The technical feasibility assessment is focused on gaining an understanding of the present technical resources of the organization and their applicability to the expected needs of the proposed system. It is an evaluation of the hardware and software and how it meets the need of the proposed system. A large part of determining

Q.2 Define Project type organization and discuss in detail

Ans: Project type organization :

A project organisation is a temporary organisation designed to achieve specific results by using teams of specialists from different functional areas in the organisation. The project team focuses all its energies, resources and results on the assigned project. Once the project has been completed, the team members from

Q.3 What is project performance evaluation? Explain the various types of project performance

evaluation techniques.

Ans : Project performance evaluation :

In project management, performance measurement techniques are used to assess the magnitude of deviations from the original project plan. Therefore, they are an important aspect of project schedule control, allowing the project team to determine whether a schedule requires corrective action.

why project performance evaluation :

Q.4 Discuss the major contents of the project’s final report

Ans : Importance of project’s final report :

The last step in the project is to summarize the different stages into a final report. It is very important that the final report contains all the necessary information regarding your project. Try to keep in mind that you should write the report so that the reader would be able to recreate all of your steps, if they so desire.

Major contents of the report :

Q. 5 Explain the various types of risk that can affect a business project.

Ans : Launching a business is a risky endeavor and as businesses expand they are likely to face a variety of risks beyond the possibility of unprofitability. Businesses that expand operations into foreign countries face many political risks that purely domestic companies do not have to deal with. Risk management describes the methods businesses use to control and adapt to the risks they face, including “macro” and “micro” political risks.

Q. 6 What are the common features of project management software.

Ans : Features in PM Software  :

1.Collaborate on Projects with Clients and Staff:

With the multi-user log-ins you can control who has access to your Project Management Software. Your clients, staff, vendors, Outsource Resources and at home workers will all be kept up to date on the projects they are assigned to.

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# MB0046- Marketing Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE SPRING 2014 PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0046- Marketing Management BK ID B1629 SEMESTER 2 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Ans : Characteristics of Organisational Buyer :

1. Derived Demand

Organizational buying is based on derived demand. Demand made by the ultimate consumers creates demand for industrial goods or services.

Q.2 A brand is a composite set of beliefs and associations in the mind of consumers. In brand

development, as a part of branding strategy decision, the brand manager can decide to create new brand elements for the new products, apply some of the existing brand elements to the new product, or use a combination of existing and new brand elements to the existing and new products. Explain the different branding strategies used by the companies for their range of products.

Ans:  Definition of Brand :

Brand is the “name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s product distinct from those of other sellers.” Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Initially, livestock branding was adopted to differentiate one person’s cattle from another’s by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. A modern example of a brand is Coca-Cola which

Q.3 Explain the classification of market based on nature of Competition and area.

Ans : Definition of market :

Usually, Market means a place where buyer and seller meets together in order to carry on transactions of goods and services. But in Economics, it may be a place, perhaps may not be. In Economics, market can exist even without direct contact of buyer and seller. This fact can be explained with the help of the following statement. Generally market is the place where buyers and sellers are physically present and finalize the transaction.

Q.4 Personal selling focuses in on ‘personal’ or ‘one to one’ selling. It involves an individual salesman or a sales team establishing and building a profitable relationship with customers over a period of time through a series of steps. Explain the steps in the personal selling process which helps in the successful sales.

Ans : Personal Selling :

Personal selling is selling technique involved between person to person and between the prospective buyer and seller. Personal selling consists of human contact and direct communication rather than impersonal mass communication

Q.5 Describe the stages in consumer decision making process.

Ans :  Stages in consumer decision making process :

A consumer goes through several stages before purchasing a product or service.

Stage 1 — Need :

Need is the most important factor which leads to buying of products and services. Need in fact is the catalyst which triggers the buying decision of individuals. An individual who buys cold drink or a bottle of mineral water identifies his/her need as

Q. 6 Do you think the argument of some theorists that the traditional Ps are not enough for

services marketing? Give suitable examples to prove your point.

Ans: Service Marketing :

Services marketing is a sub field of marketing which covers the marketing of both goods and services. Goods marketing includes the marketing of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and durables. Services marketing typically refers to the marketing of both business to consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) services.

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# OPERATION MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE SPRING 2014 PROGRAM MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBAN2/ PGDBAN2 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB 0044 — PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT BK ID B1627 SEMESTER 2 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q. 1 Explain briefly elements of operations strategy ?

Ans : An operations strategy is a high-level integrated plan for business effectiveness or competitiveness. The following are the key elements of operations strategy:

1.Positioning the production system

2.Focus of factories & service facilities

3.Product/service design & development

Q. 2 Describe the general factors that influence the plant location decision.

Ans :  Factors influencing plant location decision :

1. Nature of the product

2. Volume of production:

3. Basic managerial policies and decisions

4. Nature of plant location

Q.3 Write short notes on

Total productive Maintenance

GNATT Chart

Bullwhip effect in SCM

Scheduling in services

Ans : Total productive Maintenance :

One of the main objectives of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment with a modest investment in maintenance. Total Quality management (TQM) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) are considered as the key operational activities of the quality management system. In order for TPM to be effective, the full support of the total workforce is required. This should result in

GNATT Chart :

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Modern Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e. precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt

Bullwhip effect in SCM  :

Supply chain management is a complex process. There are several issues that can lead to the bullwhip effect and those issues can be exacerbated by delays in transmitting information, and a lack of coordination up and down the supply chain. Some causes of the bullwhip effect include:

• Consumer demand swings

Scheduling in services :

Scheduling involves the decision to allocate available resources over relatively short periods of time using aggregate planning. On an operational level, scheduling relates to the use of equipment and facilities, the scheduling of

Q. 4 Explain the steps and tools for changing project management process.

Ans :  Steps for changing project management process :

Step 1: Create Urgency

For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.

Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition

Q.5 Under capacity options the company decides to vary the production output by varying the time, workforce or outsourcing. What are the basic capacity options a company can choose to meet demand?

Ans :  Capacity Options :

Capacity options allow planners to change supply by adjusting labor, inventory, and subcontracting.

1. Hire and lay off workers:

The extent to which operations are labor intensive determines the impact that changes in the workforce level will have on capacity. Of the cost involved in this option, hiring cost includes recruitment, screening, and training to bring new workers “up to speed.” And, quality may suffer. Some savings may occur if workers who have recently been laid off are rehired.

Q. 6 Write short notes on:

Relevance of Value Engineering in manufacturing

Vendor Managed inventory

Rating methods for locating a plant

Ans : Relevance of Value Engineering in manufacturing :

Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the “value” of goods or products and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. It is a primary tenet of value engineering

Vendor Managed inventory :

Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) is a family of business models in which the buyer of a product (business) provides certain information to a vendor (supply chain) supplier of that product and the supplier takes full responsibility for

Rating methods for locating a plant :

Factor-rating systems are perhaps the most widely used of the general location techniques because they provide a mechanism to combine diverse factors in an easy-to-understand format. A major problem with simple point-rating schemes is that they do not account for the wide range of costs that may occur within each factor. For

Importance of business process modelling :

Business Process Modeling is an important part of understanding and restructuring the activities and information a typical enterprise uses to achieve its business goals. With a modeling tool like Enterprise Architect, you can model, document and restructure those processes and information flows using industry standard UML and the

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