# SMU MBA ASSIGNMENTS

## sem 4

Spring / February 2012

MF0015 — International Financial Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1316)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

Q1. You are given the following information:
Spot EUR/USD : 0.7940/0.8007
Spot USD/GBP: 1.8215/1.8240
Three months swap: 25/35
Calculate three month EUR/USD rate.

Ans:-
Forward Points = ((Spot * (1 + (OCR rate * n/360))) / (1 + (BCR rate * n/360))) – Spot
OCR = Other Currency Rate
BCR = Base Currency Rate
Forward points = ((0.07940 * (1 + (0.018215 * 90/360))) / (1 + (0.08007 * 90/360))) — 0.07940
SWAP = -0.00120
Forward rate = 0.07940 – 0.00120 = 0.0782
Customer sells EUR 3 Mio against USD at 0.0782 at 3 month (0.07940 – 0.00120).
Customer wants to Buy EUR 3 Mio against USD 3 months forward.

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Q2. Distinguish between Eurobond and foreign bonds. What are the unique characteristics of Eurobond markets?
Ans:- A Eurobond is underwritten by an international syndicate of banks and other securities firms, and is sold exclusively in countries other than the country in whose currency the issue is denominated. For example, a bond issued by a U.S. corporation, denominated in U.S. dollars, but sold to investors in Europe and Japan (not to investors in the United States), would be a Eurobond. Eurobonds are issued by multinational corporations, large domestic corporations,

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Q3. What is sub-prime lending? Explain the drivers of sub-prime lending? Explain briefly the different exchange rate regime that is prevalent today.

Q4. Explain (a) Parallel Loans (b) Back — to- Back loans

Q5. Explain double taxation avoidance agreement in detail

Q6. What do you mean by optimum capital structure? What factors affect cost of capital across nations?

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Spring / February 2012

MF0015 — International Financial Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1316)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. “Because of its broad global environment, a number of disciplines (geography, history, political science, etc.) are useful to help explain the conduct of International Business.” Elucidate with examples.

International Finance is a distinct field of study and certain features set it apart from other fields. The important distinguishing features of international finance are discussed below:
– Foreign exchange risk: An understanding of foreign exchange risk is essential for managers and investors in the modern day environment of unforeseen changes in foreign exchange rates. In a domestic economy this risk is generally ignored because a single national currency serves as the main medium of exchange within a country. When different national currencies are exchanged for each other, there is a definite risk of volatility in foreign exchange rates. The present International Monetary System set up is characterized by a mix of floating and managed exchange rate policies adopted by each nation keeping in view its interests. In fact, this variability of exchange rates is widely regarded as the most serious international financial problem facing corporate managers and policy makers.
– Political risk: Another risk that firms may encounter in international finance is political risk. Political risk ranges from the risk of loss (or gain) from unforeseen government actions or other events of a political character such as acts of terrorism to outright expropriation of assets held by foreigners. MNCs must assess the political risk not only in countries where it is currently doing business but also where it expects to establish subsidiaries. The extreme form of political risk is when the sovereign country changes the “rules of the game” and the affected parties have no alternatives open to them.
– Expanded opportunity sets: When firms go global, they also tend to benefit from expanded opportunities which are available now. They can raise funds in capital markets where cost of capital is the lowest. In addition, firms can also gain from greater economies of scale when they operate on a global basis.
– Market imperfections: The final feature of international finance that distinguishes it from domestic finance is that world markets today are highly imperfect. There are profound differences among nations’ laws, tax systems, business practices and general cultural environments. Imperfections in the world financial markets tend to restrict the extent to which investors can diversify their portfolio. Though there are risks and costs in coping with these market imperfections, they also offer managers of international firm’s abundant opportunities.

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Q2. What is a credit transaction and a debit transaction? Which are the broad categories of international transactions classified as credits and as debits?

Q3. What is cross rates? Explain the two methods of quotations for exchange rates with examples.

Q4. Explain covered and uncovered interest rate arbitrage.

Q5. Explain briefly the mechanism of futures trading
Q6. Briefly explain the difference between ‘functional currency’ and ‘reporting currency’. Identify the factors that help in selecting an appropriate functional currency that can be used by an organisation.

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Spring / February 2012

MF0016 — Treasury Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1311)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Bring out in a table format the features of certificate of deposits and commercial papers.

Commercial Papers (CPs)
Commercial Papers (CPs) is a type of instrument in money market and it was introduced in Jan 1990. Commercial paper is a short-term unsecured promissory note issued by large corporations. They are issued in bearer forms on a discount to face value. It issued by the corporations to raise funds for a short-term. The maturity period ranges from 30 days to one year. CPs is negotiable by endorsement and delivery. They are highly liquid as they have buy-back facility.
The CPs is issued in denominations of Rs. 5 lakh or multiples of Rs. 5 lakh. Generally CPs is issued through banks, dealers or brokers. Sometimes they are issued directly to the investors. It is purchased mostly by the commercial banks, Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) and business organisations. CPs is issued in domestic as well as international financial markets. In international financial markets, they are known as Euro-commercial paper.
Certificate of Deposits (CDs)
Certificate of deposit (CDs) is a short-term instrument issued by commercial banks and financial institutions. It is a document issued for the amount deposited in a bank for a specified period at a specified rate of interest. The concerned bank issues a receipt which is both marketable and transferable in the market. The receipts are in bearer or registered form. CDs are known as negotiable instruments and they are also known as Negotiable Certificates of Deposit. Basically they are a part of bank’s deposit; hence they are riskless in terms of payments and principal amount. CDs are interest-bearing, maturity-dated obligations of banks. CDs benefit both the banker and the investor. The bankers need not encash the deposit before the maturity and the investor can sell the CDs in the secondary market before the maturity. This contributes to the liquidity and ready marketability for the instrument. CDs can be issued only by the schedule banks. It is issued at discount to face value. The discount rate depends on the market conditions. CDs are issued in the multiples of Rs. 25 lakh and the minimum size of the issue is Rs.1 crore. The maturity period ranges from three months to one year.
The introduction of CDs in Indian market was assessed in 1980. RBI appointed the Vaghul Working Group to study the Indian market for five years. Based on the suggestions of Vaghul committee; RBI formulated a scheme for the issue of CDs. As per the scheme, CDs can be issued only by the scheduled banks at a discount rate to face value. There is no restriction on the discount rate by the RBI.

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Features of commercial papers

Q2. What is capital account convertibility? What are the implications on implementing CAC?

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Q3. Distinguish between CRR and SLR
Cash Reserve Ratio

Q4. Explain various sources of interest rate risk.

Q5. Describe the three approaches to determine VaR

Q6. What is liquidity gap and detail the assumptions of it?
Liquidity Gap Report

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Spring / February 2012

MF0016 — Treasury Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1311)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. What are the features of ADRs and GDRs?

A Depository Receipt (DR) is a versatile financial security that is traded on a local stock exchange but it represents a security that is issued by a foreign publicly listed company. Two of the most common types of DRs are the American Depository Receipt (ADR) and Global Depository Receipt (GDR).
ADR is a security issued by a non-U.S. company and is traded on U.S. stock exchanges. ADRs are issued to offer investment methods that avoid the unwieldy laws applied to the non-citizens who buy shares on local exchanges. ADRs are listed on NYSE, AMEX or NASDAQ.
– ADRs are easy and cost efficient methods to buy shares in foreign companies.
– ADRs save money by reducing administration costs and avoiding foreign taxes on the transaction.
GDRs were developed on the basis of ADRs and are listed on stock exchanges outside US. GDRs are traded globally instead of the original shares on exchanges. The objective of GDR is to enable investors to gain economic exposure to a planned company in developed markets.
Features of GDRs are as follows:

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GDR holders do not have a voting right.
– It has less exchange risk as compared to foreign currency loan.
– GDR investors may cancel his receipt by advising the depository.
ADRs and GDRs are excellent means of investment for NRIs and foreign nationals who want to invest in India.

Q2. Explain FEMA and highlight the effect of FEMA on liberalisation.

Q3. What are the factors which distinguishes multinational cash management from domestic cash management?

Q4. Explain the framework for measuring and managing the liquidity risks.
Measuring Liquidity Risk

Q5. Discuss the interest rate management using FRAs and swaps and the role of financial intermediaries.

Q6. Illustrate few issues that need to be considered while developing market risk management policies.

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Spring / February 2012

MF0017 — Merchant Banking and Financial Services – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1318)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Discuss the role of a custodian of shares.
Custodial services refer to the safeguarding of securities of a client. The activities relating to custodial services involve collecting the rights benefiting the client in respect to securities, maintaining the securities’ account of the client, informing the clients about the actions taken or to be taken, and maintaining records of the services.
Custodian of services is a person who proposes or carries on the business of providing custodial services. The custodian provides the services to a client. To receive custodial services, the client enters into an agreement with the custodian of securities. The custodian of securities must be registered with the SEBI. The person proposing to carry on business as custodian of securities after the commencement of the SEBI regulations has to send an application to the Board to grant a certificate. The applicant has to provide the necessary information to the Board to receive the certificate of registration. The application without complete information is rejected. However, before rejecting any application, the Board gives an opportunity to the applicant to remove the objection within a specified time.
Custodial services is a new method of services provided to Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) and Mutual Funds (MFs) to protect their assets such as security certificates and documents of ownership. Every custodian should have adequate facilities, sufficient capital and financial strength to manage the custodial services.
Roles and responsibilities of custodians
The SEBI regulations prescribe the roles and responsibilities of the custodians. According to the SEBI the roles and responsibilities of the custodians are to:
– Administrate and protect the assets of the clients.
– Open a separate custody account and deposit account in the name of each client.
– Record assets.
– Conduct registration of securities.
– Segregate securities and cash belonging of each client from others including custodian himself.

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– Maintain records manually or in machine readable form.
– State clearly the method and system of receiving instructions from the client regarding collection, receipt, reporting and delivery of securities.
– Conduct verification of securities and to follow the stated control mechanism.
– Mention specifically the fees charged in the agreement.
– Conduct audit annually.
The custodian should have an adequate internal control system to prevent the manipulation of records and documents, which includes audit for securities and entitlements arising from securities, and held on behalf of the clients. To ensure that securities are protected from theft and natural hazards, the custodian must have appropriate safekeeping measures. On behalf of the client, the custodians have to maintain records and documents such as details of securities, money received and released registration of securities, and all reports submitted to the SEBI.
To monitor the compliance to the SEBI Act, every custodian of securities appoints a compliance officer. The SEBI can ask for any information with respect to any matter relating to the activities of the custodian. The SEBI is authorised to conduct inspection or investigation of accounts, documents or records of the custodians to ensure that the provisions of the SEBI Act and regulations are followed. In case of default, the SEBI can suspend or cancel registration of a custodian.
Every registered custodian must follow the code of conduct prescribed by SEBI. The following are the code of conduct prescribed by SEBI:
– Integrity — The custodian of securities must maintain high standards of integrity and professionalism while discharging duties.
– Prompt distribution — The custodian of securities must be prompt in distributing interests and divide

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nds collected by him, on behalf of his clients on the securities held in custody.
– Infrastructure — The custodian of securities must establish and maintain suitable infrastructure to discharge custodial services to the satisfaction of the clients. The operating procedures and systems of the custodian of securities need to be well documented.
– Accountability — The custodian of securities is responsible for the movement of securities. The movement of securities can be from custody account, deposit and withdrawal of cash from the client’s account. Whenever demanded by SEBI or the client, the custodian of securities must provide the complete audit trail.
– Confidentiality — The custodian of securities has to maintain confidentiality regarding the client.
– Precautions — The custodian of securities must take necessary precautions to ensure that continuity in custodial records is not lost or destroyed. To maintain sufficient backup records, the custodial records are kept electronically.
– Records — The custodian of securities must create and maintain records of securities held in custody appropriately. This must be done to locate securities or obtain duplicate documents easily if the original records are lost due to any reason.
– Cooperation — The custodian of securities must cooperate with other custodial entities and depositories which are necessary for the conduct of business, especially in the areas of inter custodial settlements and transfer of securities and funds.
– Diligence — The custodian of securities must exercise diligence in administrating and safekeeping the client’s assets which are in his custody.

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Q2. What are the provisions for prevention of fraudulent and unfair trade practices by SEBI regulations?

Q3. Explain the different life insurance products.

Q4. Describe the deposit products and loan products.

Deposit products

Q5. Discuss about the two important credit rating agencies in India.

Q6. Describe issue management in merchant banking.

Spring / February 2012

MF0017 — Merchant Banking and Financial Services – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1318)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Give examples of various venture capital funds that are present and examples of some business ventures that have been successful with venture capital financing.

Indian Venture Capital Scenario
In India, the emergence of venture capital companies is a relatively new phenomenon. Until 1985, individual investors and Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) have played the role of venture capitalists in the absence of an organised venture capital industry. During that time entrepreneurs have largely depended on private placements, public offerings and lending by financial institutions. The venture capital phenomenon has arrived at a take-off stage in India with the easy availability of risk capital in all forms. In the earlier stage, it was easy to raise only growth capital but financing of ideas or seed capital is now available after the introduction of venture capital phenomenon. The number of players offering growth capital and the number of investors is rising rapidly.
In India, the concept of venture capital was initiated by the Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) when it established the Risk Capital Foundation (RCF) to provide seed capital to small and risky projects. However, the concept of venture capital financing first time got statutory recognition in the fiscal budget for the year 1986 to 1987.
The venture capital companies operating at present in India can be divided into four categories based on their mode of promotion. Let us read about each mode.

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Promoted by All-India Development Financial Institution (IDFI)
The ICICI provided the required impetus to venture capital activities in India. In 1986 it started providing venture capital finance. In 1998, it promoted with the Unit Trust of India (UTI) and Technology Development and Information Company of India (TDICI) as the first venture capital company registered under the Companies Act, 1956.
The risk capital foundation established by the IFCI in 1975 was converted to Risk Capital and Technology Finance Company (RCTC). The RCTC was established as a subsidiary company of IFCI to provide assistance in form of conventional loans and to give financial support to high technology projects.
Promoted by state level finance institution
In India, the state level financial institutions in some states like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh have done an excellent job by providing venture capital finance to small scale enterprises.
Promoted by commercial banks
Venture capital funds have been established by their corresponding commercial banks to undertake venture capital financing activity. Examples of these funds are Canbank venture capital fund, State bank venture capital fund, and Grindlays bank.
Private venture capital funds
In India, several venture capital funds have been established to provide funding to various small scale enterprises. Examples of these funds established in India are 20th Century Venture Capital Corporation and Indus venture capital fund.

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Q2. Mutual fund schemes can be identified by investment objective, List one scheme within each category.

Q3. What are the advantages of leasing to a company ?

Q4. What is the provision of green shoe option and how is it used by companies to stabilize prices?

Q5. What do you understand by insider trading? What are the SEBI rules and regulations to prevent insider trading?

Q6. A company wishes to take machinery on lease. Study the lease options available to the company.

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Spring / February 2012

MF0018 —Insurance and Risk Management- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1319)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Discuss the guidelines for settlement of claims by Insurance company.

General guidelines for claims’ settlement
There are some guidelines that must be followed while settling the claims. These guidelines are general in nature, and are not compiled to be the same always. Therefore, the claim settling authority uses discretion and records reasons.
Appointment of surveyor
The Insurance Act states that surveyor should survey claims above Rs. 20,000. The surveyor’s appointment should be based on the following points:
– The surveyor should have a valid license.
– The surveyor selected should consider the type of loss and nature of the claims.
– Depending on the situation, if technical expertise is required, a consultant having technical expertise assists the surveyor.
– One surveyor can be used for various jobs, if the surveyor’s competence is good for both.
Appointment of investigator
Depending on circumstances, it is necessary to appoint an investigator for verifying the claim version of loss. The appointing letter of the investigator o mentions all the reference terms to perform.
Guidelines for Settlement of Claims by IRDA
1. Proposal for insurance
The proposals for insurance are:
– In all cases to claim insurance, a proposal for grant of cover should be submitted with proof (a written document). But a written proposal form is not required for marine insurance markets.
– Depending on the circumstances of the claim, forms and documents in the grant of cover can be made available in the languages recognised by the constitution of India.

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– The prospect is to fill the form of proposal, under the guidance of the provisions of section 45 of the Insurance Act.
– If a proposal form is not used, the insurer has to record the information obtained, orally or in writing, and confirmation is to be done by the insurer within 15 days. If any information is not recorded, the burden of the missing information lies on the insurer, in case he claims that the insured is suppressing information or is providing misleading information.
– The insurer is to educate the proposer, concerning the facilities available, like appointing nominee or any facility based on the terms of act or conditions of policy.
– The insurer has to process the proposal quickly and efficiently. All the decisions and confirmations should not exceed 15 days from the receipt of proposal by the insurer.
2. Matters to be stated in life insurance policy
A life insurance policy should clearly state the following:
– The name of plan in the policy, its terms and conditions.
– Whether participating in profits or not.
– The profits such as cash bonus deferred bonus, simple or compound bonus, if participating.
– The terms and conditions of the contract, benefits payable and contingencies on which the benefits are payable.
– The dates of commencement of the policy, benefits availing date and maturity date.
– The time gap to pay premiums, the amount of premium, the grace period to pay premium.

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– The implications of not paying premium and the provisions of a surrender value.
– Policy requirements for converting the policy into paid-up policy, surrender value, non-forfeiture and to revive lapsed policy.
– The provision for loan keeping the policy as the security and the rate of interest on the loan amount is to be mentioned at the time of taking the loan.
– The address of the insurer to communicate with regard to the policy.
– All the documents to avail claim under a policy.
– When acting under regulations to forward policy to the insured, the insurer has to inform that the letter forwarded has a time span of 15 days from the date of receipt, to review the terms and conditions of the policy. If, in case, the insured do not agree, they can return the policy stating the reasons for objection. The insured is entitled to refund the premium which is subjected to a deduction with respect to a proportionate risk premium.
With respect to the policy coverage, if the premium charge depends on age, the insurer should verify the age before issuing the policy document. If the premium charge does not depend on age, the insurer is to obtain the proof of age as soon as possible.
3. Claims procedure of life insurance policy
The claims procedures with respect to life insurance policy are:
1. A life insurance policy should state all the documents to be submitted by a claimant, to support a claim.
2. A life insurance company on receiving a claim, has to process the claim. Any additional document, if needed, is to be raised within a period of 15 days of the receipt claim.

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3. A claim under a life policy has to be paid or disputed, by giving relevant reasons, and clarifying within 30 days from the date of receipt. All investigations, that is, initiations and completions of investigations, must be done not later than 6 months.
4. If a claim is ready for payment, but the payment is not made because of reasons related to proper identification of the payee, the insurer has to hold the amount for the benefit of the payee, and earn interest at the rate applicable to a savings bank account.
5. If there is a delay in payment from the part of the insurer, in processing a claim, then the insurance company has to pay the claim amount at a rate two percent above the bank rate, according to the rate at the beginning of the financial year, in which the claim is reviewed.

Q2. What is premium accounting and claim accounting?

Q3. Critically evaluate the role of agents in insurance industry.

Q4. Explain product design and development process in Insurance Industry.
Q5. What is facultative reinsurance and treaty reinsurance?

Q6. What is the role of information technology in promoting insurance products?

Spring / February 2012

MF0018 —Insurance and Risk Management- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1319)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. What is the procedure to determine the value of various investments?

Procedure to determine the value of investments
According to this sub clause of the Regulations, a detailed procedure has been prescribed for determining value of various investments like real estate, debt securities and equity securities.
Real estate
– Investment property — The investment property can be valued at a historical cost after deducting the accumulated depreciation and impairment loss. Residual value is considered zero and no re-evaluation is allowed. The change in the carrying amount of the investment property shall be taken to Revaluation Reserve.
– The insurers can asses at every balance sheet date to check whether an impairment of the investment property has occurred.
– All impairment losses are recognised as expense in the Revenue/Profit and Loss account.
Debt securities
Debt securities that include the government securities and the redeemable preference share must be considered as “held to maturity” securities and can be measured at an historical cost that is subjected to amortisation.

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Equity securities and derivative instruments that are traded in active markets
– Limited equity securities and derivative instruments that are traded in active markets must be measured at a fair value according to the balance sheet date. The lowest of the last estimated closing price of the stock exchanges where securities are listed can be considered for estimating the fair value.
– The insurer can assess the balance sheet date to check whether an impairment of the listed equity security instruments has occurred.
– An active market means the market where the securities that are traded are homogenous, it has normal willing buyers and sellers and the prices are available publicly.
– Unrealised gains or losses that arise due to the change in the fair value of listed equity shares and derivative instruments can be considered under the heading “Fair Value Change Account” and reported in Profit or Loss account. The profit or loss on sale of such investments can include the accumulated changes of the fair value that was previously recognised under the heading Fair Value Change Account with respect to a particular security and recycled to Profit and Loss Account on actual sale of that listed security.
– The balance in Fair Value Change Account or any part thereof cannot be distributed as dividends. In addition to this, while declaring dividends, any debit balance in the Fair Value Change Account can be reduced from the profits or free reserves.
Loans
Loans can be calculated at a historical cost that is subjected to impairment provisions.
Catastrophe reserve
Catastrophe reserve can be created according to the norms, if any prescribed by the authority. Fund investment out of catastrophe reserve can be made according to the instruction given by the authority. Further it is clarified that this reserve is created to meet the losses that may arise because of some unexpected set of event and not any definite known reason.
The following need to be disclosed as notes to the Balance Sheet:
– Contingent liabilities:
– Partly paid-up investments.
– Outstanding underwriting commitments.
– Claims not judged as debts.
– Guarantees provided by or on behalf of the company.
– Statutory demands.
– Reinsurance commitments.
– Others (to be specified).
– Encumbrances to company assets (inside and outside India)
– Obligations made for loans, investments and fixed assets.
– Agein

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g of claims.
– Recognition of premium income extent based on different risk patterns.
– Contract values with respect to investments.
– Procurements where deliveries are delayed and pending.
– Sales where payments are not settled.
– Operational expenditures of the insurance business.
– Historical costs of valued investments on a fair value basis.
– Calculation of remuneration of managers.
– Amortisation basis of debt securities.
– Unrealised gains or losses due to fair value changes of equity shares and derivative instruments.
– The credit balance in Fair Value Change account is not available for distribution when realisation is pending.
– Fair value of investment property and its basis.
– Claims settled and outstanding claims for a period of more than six months on the balance sheet date.
The following accounting policies form an integral part of financial statements:
– All important accounting policies with respect to accounting standards issued by ICAI, important policies mentioned in Part I of Accounting Principles. Other accounting principles of an insurer are stated according to Accounting Standard AS 1 by ICAI.
– Any departure from the accounting policies as abovementioned need to be separately revealed with reasons.
The following information also needs to be disclosed:
– Investments made according to statutory requirements need to be disclosed separately together with its amount, security and special rights inside and outside India.
– Segregation of performing and non performing investments for income purpose as per the directions issued by authorities.
– Summarised financial statements of last five years prescribed by authorities.
– Accounting ratios provided by authorities.
– Allocation of interests, dividends and rents among revenues, profits and losses.

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Q2. Explain chance of loss and degree of risk with examples.
Q3. Explain in detail Malhotra Committee recommendations?
Q4. What is VAR and how it is useful in risk management tool?
Q5. List and explain briefly the organisations of insurers in India.
Q6. Explain different types of pricing objectives and methods.

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MBA Semester 4
MK0015 — Service Marketing And Customer Relationship Management
ASSIGNMENT- Set 1

Q1. Explain briefly the differences between services and tangible products
Ans:- There are several differences between services and tangible products, let us discuss some of them, which include:
– Intangibility: We studied that services are intangible and it is something that you cannot see. It is an activity that you can experience or feel after its execution. For example, a friendly treatment or service makes the guest feel special and affects their experience, during their stay in the hotel. Where as the goods are tangible.
– Mass production of services: Services cannot be produced in mass quantities and stored for consumption in the later stages. Let us take the example of a travel industry. Holidays are the peak season in the travel industry when buses, cars, aeroplanes, trains, and crew members will be utilised to the maximum. For lean months when people travel very less, the travel industry will have the same number of aeroplanes, cars, buses, trains and so on. This example exemplifies the fact that the services cannot be produced and stored for future usage unlike goods.
– Perishable nature of services: Tangible products contain expiry dates and carry labels with “’best before’ tags”. Where as, services will not have expiry dates because it is an action that is carried out and is consumed immediately or as soon as possible. Moreover, the organisation will not be able to resell or return the services when compared to the manufactured goods.
– Difficulty in standardising services: It is easy for a manufacturer of soap to produce millions of soap bars with the same size, scent and quality. The execution of services by an employee towards the client will be influenced by several factors. For example, a receiving clerk in an office will be very friendly and welcome you pleasantly in the morning, but might turn cranky by afternoon. Another example is in banks the client who is in hurry might be nasty to a bank teller, when compared to the client who has ample time to spend. Hence, we can conclude that in service marketing you cannot provide the same type of services to all your clients.
– Pricing difficulty: Marketing practitioners address major challenges like deciding and putting the price tags. Some customers have a perception that low priced service is a low quality service. There must be a good co-ordination between the price and the kind of service the company provide. For example a low budget airline might not serve snacks or drinks during the journey. But the traveller might turn unsatisfactory for an airline that charges, but does not offer free in-flight meals.
– Services cannot be patented: Owners of the newly invented tangible products protect their product’s secret ingredients and designs against their competitors by registering and obtaining patents for their products against a government agency. In case of services, the methods and models can be easily copied. To be in the market, the service oriented companies constantly find different ways by designing new service models and by copying the models of their competitors.
It is clear that the services and products are different. In the next section we will learn the meaning of service sector and how it is different from services.
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Q 2. List the unique characteristics of services.
Ans:- There are four unique characteristics for services, let us discuss them in detail, these four characteristics are:
– Intangibility: This forms the biggest constituent of service that cannot be presented in a concrete way before purchasing. As services are intangible, you cannot feel, smell, hear, see, taste, and experience the service before you purchase it.
Q 3. Describe the challenges during the transition of economics in the services growth sector.
Ans- The
Q 4. Briefly explain the 7P’s of marketing mix.
Ans:- The 7P’s of service marketing mix are:
– Product: This should provide value to
Q 5. List are the advantages of Rater model of service quality
Ans:- This model explains the main criteria, which the clients make use of to measure the service quality. Rater model was produced by Zeithami in
Q 6. Describe the various positioning strategies for services
Ans:- Various positioning strategies are:
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MBA Semester 4
MK0015 – Service Marketing And Customer Relationship Managemnet
ASSIGNMENT- Set 2
Q 1. List the importance of advertising and sales promotion.
Ans;- Positioning Through Sales Promotion and Advertising
After learning how positioning can be achieved thought distribution strategies, we shall now see how sales promotion and advertising helps to bring in positioning. Advertising helps the marketer to sell their products/services and improves the relation between wholesalers and retailers. A free trail of a service stimulates customer to buy that service. A free management advisory service builds a strong relationship with a retailer. Advertising motivates quicker and/or greater purchase of a particular service by consumers or the trade.
Adverting is a part of promotion mix. Promotion can be defined as “the co-ordination of all seller initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to facilitate the scale of a good or service. There are four basic components of promotion mix. They are:
– Personal selling.
– Sales promotion.
– Publicity.
Advertising is the circulation of information about a service by non-personal means through paid media where the source is the sponsoring organisation.
Personal selling is the circulation of information about a service by non-personal methods. It can be through face-to-face meetings, meeting between audience and workers of the sponsoring organisation. Here also the source of information is the sponsoring organisation.
Sales promotion can be any programme handled by an organisation to encourage an increase in sales, usage or trial of a product or service.
Q 2. What are the various levels of customer satisfaction?
Ans:- Services are actions that are produced and consumed at the same time. The role of the customer is important in the production and delivery
Q3. Describe the importance of a plan or methodology to initiate customer responses?
Ans:- Most organisations undervalue the importance of good customer response and the harmful effects of bad customer response. Customer response is very crucial as a profitable customer response strategy is very much valuable.

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Q 4. Briefly explain the five factors that influence the level of adequate service
Ans:-
Q 5. Describe the various service quality dimensions with the help of relevant examples.
Ans:- The service quality and customer satisfaction is measured by comparing expectations and perceptions.
Q 6. List the differences between flexible services and standard services.
Ans:- Service Flexibility Versus Standards
As

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MBA Semester 4
MK0016 — Advertising Management And Sales Promotion
ASSIGNMENT- Set 1
Q 1. List the importance of advertising. How does advertising change the perception and decision of the target?
Ans:- Advertising is something which is lifeline of any successful business because without advertising only few companies can survive. The importance of advertising cannot be underestimated, given below is the list of importance of advertising for a company —
1. It helps the company in making new customers because it is only advertising which can increase the consumer base of the company.
2. It helps the firm in retaining the present customers, imagine when an advertisement of your favorite cold drink stop appearing on television, your first reaction would be is something wrong with the company and you may switch to other substitute.
3. It helps the company in selling any new product which it has discovered or made after many years of research, without advertising heavily a company cannot sell such new products because it is only through advertisement that company can tell customers what is the difference in their product from the close substitute of the product being advertised.
4. It ultimately helps the company in increasing the business of the company by increasing the sales volume of the products of the company and that is the reason even new companies do not hesitate in spending millions on advertising.
5. It can lead to change in the fortunes of the company as history reveals some companies products are not that good as compared to their competitors even then those companies have performed better purely on the basis of better advertising strategies as compared to their competitors.
6. In this globalized world it is advertising which makes possible the people of Africa to see what companies are producing in America or Asia and vice versa.

Since attitudes have traditionally been viewed as evaluations that are stored in memory and persist over time, the constructs of memory
.
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Q 2. List the factors that affect advertising and marketing .Describe the methods to calculate poverty line and disposable income
Ans:- There are some factors which deeply influence advertising thinking in India and which are entirely different from the last century and perhaps other developing countries.
Q 3. Describe the ways to catch the reader or viewer attention List the different theories of advertising.
Ans:- How to get the attention of the reader or viewer?.
Q 4. List the differences between public service advertising and financial advertising? Write notes on corporate copy and Advertorial copy

Q 6. Explain the elements of advertising execution .Describe the various aspects of media objectives and execution

Delivery of the selected advertising concept has two aspects, creative and media execution. If the creative execution is not right
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A Semester 4
MK0016 – Advertising Management And Sales Promotion
ASSIGNMENT- Set 2
Q 1. Describe the benefits of Direct Marketing. List all the methods and media used for it.
Ans:- Direct marketing is an interactive system of marketing which uses one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response and/or transaction at any location.
Benefits of direct marketing :
– Shoppers who don’t enjoy dealing with salespeople often prefer direct marketing because there is no need for face-to-face interaction.
– Direct marketing allows you to build a qualified and potential database for your business.
– It also helps you gather concrete information that can provide you evidence of the effectiveness of your marketing medium, such as your postcard printing project.
– Direct marketing allows you to develop an effective and responsive feedback system.
– It is easy to measure results because you know exactly how many people you’ve contacted in the first place. Once you’ve run a direct marketing campaign
and know the conversion rates involved, you can work on refining and improving your success rates.
– Buying direct can mean dealing strictly with the manufacturer without the intervention of a third-party retailer or distributor.

Direct Marketing Channels

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Q 2. Discuss media options .List the differences between above-the-line below-the-line media.
Ans:- Media Options
There are thousands of publications in over 17 official Indian languages, government and private television channels,
Q 3. Describe the objectives of media. Discuss the factors which are changing the media choices.
Ans:- Media objectives
The fundamental objective of media

Q 4. What do you understand by “Market Segmentation”? List the advantages of Market Segmentation
Ans:- The market for any manufactured product is generally built using several segments. A ‘market’ in any case is a collection of customers for a given product. The customers (the end users), who make up a market, are different with respect to buying manners
Q 5. Describe the Types and Nature of Markets. Explain the four broad bases for segmentation in e-marketing
Ans:- Markets can be broadly divided into three types:
Q 6. What do you understand by Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)? How does SEO work and what are the objectives of SEO?
Ans:- SEO is a

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MBA – Semester 4
MK0017 — e Marketing
ASSIGNMENT- Set 1

Q 1. What do you understand by “e- marketing”? Describe the features of e-marketing.
Ans:- e-Marketing can be defined as ‘Achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology’. It can be described as an act of trying to achieve marketing objectives through electronic or digital means. It can also be called as Electronic Marketing.
Internet is used for most e-Marketing campaigns, such as e-Newsletters and e-mails. The marketing of products or services over the Internet can be called as i-marketing, web-marketing, online-marketing, search engine marketing (SEM) or e-Marketing
Similar to many other English words, the term ‘e-marketing’ was born by adding the prefix “e-” to a term already known and used that is “marketing”. The prefix “e-” is the short form of “electronic” and is quite omnipresent in today’s language of many people: “e-marketing”, “e-business”, “e-mail”, “e-learning”, and “e-commerce”.
Specialists of CISCO Company have defined e-marketing as: “a generic term utilised for a wide range of activities — advertising, customer communications, branding, and fidelity programs etc. — using the internet.”
In a scientific approach, we could define e-marketing as allowing relational exchanges in digital, networked and interactive environments (acronym: DNI environments).
Features of e-Marketing
“Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably”.
The focus of the above definition is on the customers and marketing with them. According to Smith and Chaffey (2001) Internet technology can be achieved by:
Identifying — The Internet must be used to know the needs and wants of the customers.

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Q 2. Describe the principles in e — marketing. .Explain e-Business Models
Ans;- Five important e-marketing principles:
Q 3. Describe 4 P’s in e-Marketing Mix. Discuss the Product Mix Strategies adopted by the companies
Ans;- Marketing is a very important aspect
Q 4. List the stages involved in implementing an e- marketing plan and Strategy. What do you understand by Marketing Performance Measurement and Management (MPM)?
Ans;-
Q 5. Discuss the various types of Data used in e-Marketing. Explain the different classes of tasks that are included in data mining
Ans;- Types of Data in e-Marketing
Q 6. What do you understand by “e-Mail marketing”? List the features of e-Mail Marketing.
Ans;- e-Mail marketing is
Opt-Out Logging
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MBA Semester 4
MK0017 — e marketing
ASSIGNMENT- Set 2

Q 1. Discuss the scope of e-marketing in B2B markets, its benefits and drawbacks. List the differences between B2B and B2C markets.
Ans;- Scope of e-marketing in B2B markets, its benefits and drawbacks:
Before setting out to develop a B2B website, you must consider a number of issues upfront. This is because the B2B website generally supports a number of key roles in your organisation. Following are a few things you could do:
– Provide more search engine visibility to B2B customers and prospects searching for products and services you can offer.
– Deliver custom information to prospects on products and services.
– Provide online product or service demonstrations.
– Provide instances of your success story on product and service solutions delivered to similar customers.
– Be proactive and engage B2B customers informing them of new products and services that you offer.
– Implement internet lead generation strategies to provide a steady stream of leads and prospects to the sales channel.
– Implement web analytics to provide the sales team, history of identified web visitors for review and opportunity analysis.
– Provide a blog environment for continuing support and interaction with customers.
– Use marketing tactics such as sign-up incentives, talk-to-an-expert chat options, data-driven dynamic offers, online product demos, blogs, information libraries and online newsletters to gather user information.
– Use search engine optimisation, prospect alerts and a web-database to ensure that your B2B website becomes an essential business internet lead generator.

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Q 2. Write a note on General Characteristics of Customers in e-Marketing.
Ans;- While creating a marketing mix,
Q 3. Explain the most important and frequently used methods of obtaining customer response.
Ans:- Customer responses towards
.
Q 4. What do you understand by “Market Segmentation”? List the advantages of Market Segmentation
Ans;- The market for any
Q 5. Describe the Types and Nature of Markets. Explain the four broad bases for segmentation in e-marketing
Ans;- Ans:- Markets can be broadly
Q 6. What do you understand by Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)? How does SEO work and what are the objectives of SEO?
Ans;- SEO is a set of procedures that help to ensure that the search engines treat the website as

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MBA Semester 4
MK0018 — International Marketing
ASSIGNMENT- Set 1
Q 1. What are the differences between International Marketing and Domestic Marketing?List the principles of international Marketing
Ans:- International Marketing vs. Domestic Marketing
The striking difference between international and domestic marketing lies in the environment in which the two take place. The important points of differences between international and domestic marketing are:
1. Sovereign Political Entities: Each country is a sovereign political entity and, therefore, they for importing and exporting the goods and services in order to safeguard their national interest impose several restrictions. The traders in international marketing have to observe such restrictions. These restrictions may fall in any of the following categories.
i) Tariffs and customs duties on import and export of goods and services in order to make them costly in the importing country and not to ban their entry into the country completely. In the post war period, through the efforts of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) there has been a significant reduction in tariff globally and on regional basis due to the emergence of regional economic groupings.
ii) Quantitative restrictions are also imposed with an intention to restrict trade in some specific commodities. The major objective behind the restriction is the protection of home industries from the competition of the foreign commodities.
iii) Exchange control is another restriction imposed by almost every sovereign state. The Government, in some cases, does not ban the entry of goods in the country but the importer is not allowed the necessary foreign exchange to make the payment for the goods imported. But, in some cases, exchange control and quantitative controls are put together along with the grant of import licence.
iv) Imposition of more local taxes on imported goods with an object to make the imported goods costly is one of the restrictions in international marketing.
2. Different Legal Systems: Different countries operate different legal systems and they all differ from each other. In most of the countries follow English Common Law as modified from time to time. Japan and Latin American countries are important exceptions to this rule. The existence of different legal systems makes the task of businessmen more difficult as they are not sure as to which particular system will apply to their transactions. This difficulty does not arise in the domestic trade, as laws are the same for the whole country.
3. Different Monetary Systems: Each country has its own monetary system and the exchange rates for each country’s currency are fixed under the rules framed by the International Monetary Fund and, therefore, they are more or less fixed. However, in recent years the exchange rates are fluctuating and are being determined by demand and supply forces. Some countries operate multiple rates; i.e. different rates are applicable to different transactions.
4. Lower Mobility Factors of Production: Mobility of different factors of production is less as between nations than in the country, itself. However, with the advent of air transport, the mobility of labour has increased manifold. Similarly, the development of international banking has increased the mobility of capital and labour. In spite of these developments, the mobility of labour and capital is not as much as it is within the country itself.
5. Differences in Market Characteristics: Market characteristics in each segment are different, i.e. demand pattern, channels of distribution, methods of promotion etc. are quite different from market to market. If we take each country a separate market, we can assume different market characteristics there. These differences are accentuated due to the existence of government controls and regulations. However, this is a difference of degree only. Even in one single country, for example, India and America, these differences in market patterns may be found from state to state.
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Q 2. Explain the important elements of culture. Differentiate between market allocation system and command allocation system.
Ans:- Elements of culture
Q 3. Define the term Trade Barrier. List the important differences between Tariff barrier and protective barrier .
Ans:- Trade barriers are any of a number of government-placed restrictions on trade between nations. The most common sorts of trade barriers are things like subsidies, tariffs, quotas, duties,
Q 4. Discuss the various entry options available to a business .Explain the basic strategic decisions that a firm will adopt for foreign expansion.
Ans:- Various entry options available to a business are:
– Joint ventures
– Strategic Alliances
Q 5. Define the process of international market segmentation. Discuss some widely used bases of segmentation.
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Ans : Market segmentation is the process of subdividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs
Q 6. Explain the significance of price factors in determining international market prices. Briefly describe the non price factors
Ans:-
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MBA Semester 4
MK0018 — International Marketing
ASSIGNMENT- Set 2

Q 1. Describe the process of communication.
Ans:- The purpose of promotion is to communicate with buyers and also to influence them. To communicate effectively with someone means that certain facts and information are shared in common with that person. Communication is basically a five-stage process consisting of source, coding, information, decoding and destination. Figure 9.1 depicts the communication process.
Encoding is a step that transforms the idea or information into a form that can be transmitted (written or spoken verbs). For a receiver, to understand the coded information, that person must be able to decode these words. The source can encode and the receiver can decode only through experience.
The two large circles represent the field of experience of each party. If the two circles have common area, communication is relatively easy because both individuals have similar psychological and social attributes. Communication is more difficult if the overlapping area is smaller. Such is often the case with international communication. If the circles do not meet the communication is likely impossible i.e. the sender and the receiver have nothing in common and they, therefore, have an extremely difficult time understanding each other. Moreover, “noise” can easily be affected by any one of the following stages, making the effect on the communication difficult to predict. Thus, the sender must be receiver oriented. The message must consist of information that the receiver can relate to and the information must be encoded with the re
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levant images and words common to receiver’s experience and language.

Figure 9.1: The Process of Communication
Q2. Explain the differences between export pricing and export costing. Write a note on major issues related to exports

Ans:- Differences between export pricing and export costing
Export pricing should be differentiated from export costing. Price is what we offer to the customer. Cost is the price that we pay/incur for the product. Price includes our profit margin; cost includes only expenses we have incurred.
Q 3. Mention the significance of export Documentation. List the documents required for processing the shipping bill
Ans:- In International trade, export documentation facilitates the flow of goods and payments across national boundaries.

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Q 4. Discuss the importance of Special Economic Zones (SEZS). List the benefits they provide to international traders and marketers.
Ans:- A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a
Q 5. List the differences between futures and forwards Markets. Explain the problems in forecasting Foreign Exchange Rates.
Ans:
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– Differences between Futures and Forwards Markets
Although futures are similar to forward contracts, they allow market participants to fix their forward liability by locking into a future exchange rate,
Q 6. Discuss the ethical issues involved in international marketing. Briefly explain the basic types of arbitration.
Ans:- Major International Marketing Ethical Problems derived from applied researches by Armstrong are presented with their short definitions as follows:

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Spring/ February 2012
MU0015 —Compensation Benefits – 4 Credits
(Book ID:1336)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.What are the factors to be taken into account to ensure an optimum compensation package for executives?
Ans. There are a lot of factors to be taken into account to ensure an optimum compensation package for executives. In this section, some of the important criteria are elaborated.
Strategy criterion

This refers to the correlation between the organizational strategy and the performance of its executives. The difficult work is to come out with a model which balances between organizational strategies and employee performance. One of the biggest expenses for an organization could be the rising cost of employee compensation. On the other side, it cannot be neglected because the employee’s performance is directly related to compensation. Therefore, some of the important steps to be taken into account are
Creating incentives based on the product life cycle.
Relating compensation to organizational strategies.
Following a simple compensation strategy.

Role criterion

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Hierarchical positions and organizational roles have a contributing effect on executive compensation design. Executives act as figureheads, and hence they should be compensated more than others in the lower rungs. However, organizations are now experimenting with structures to respond to the changing environment. It may be essential at times to sacrifice the traditional hierarchical structure. In such cases, executive compensation may not be aligned with the figurehead roles. Sometimes the pay is based on functional aspects and not on the role or position. For example, pilots are not paid a high compensation package for their position, but for their functional aspects. Therefore, the roles and responsibilities of the job is an important aspect in deciding the executive compensation.

Behavior criterion

The actions and the processes followed by executives while performing their jobs reveal their behaviour. This criterion is associated with the monitoring mechanism, and executives usually try and do a subjective analysis of the business decisions. Hence executive compensation based on behaviour criterion is quite sensible. However, executive behaviour is difficult to measure and all the aspects of the observed behaviour cannot be expected to meet a specific outcome. Hence, behaviour criterion has not received much attention from the corporate world.

Size
There is a general opinion that the size of an organization plays the most influencing role while designing executive compensation, while on the contrary, it is not. It is the performance of the organisation which is the most important criterion which influences executive pay package.

Market

The marginal productivity theory of Roberts (1956) argues that a market forces, that is, supply and demand for executive talent determine executive pay. This theory considers the services of executives like any other input for running a business operation. The theory argues that the value of the input (executive compensation) is determined by the intersection of supply and demand in the labor market.

Peer compensation

The social comparison theory (O’Reilly et al. 1988) assumes that the compensation of selected peers plays a role in designing executive pay. Often board members of an organization consider themselves as a referral point in their executive pay recommendations

Q2.How is employee benefit and labor market linked?

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Q3.What are the factors that have to be determined before preparing the salary structure?
Q4.Describe Mintzberg 5 P’s of strategy
Q5.How does compensation effect employee satisfaction?
Q6.Ms.Deepa Mehra is the VP-HR of Induslink Network. She is assigned the task of finding a new CEO for the company and fixing the compensation. What are the trends that she will have to look into before finalizing the compensation package for the CEO?

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Spring/ February 2012
MU0015 —Compensation Benefits – 4 Credits
(Book ID:1336)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.What is CTC? What are the components of CTC?

Ans. Cost to Company is the amount that you cost your company. That is the amount that the company directly or indirectly spends on you because of employing you.
Components of CTC:
Following are the components of
i. Basic
ii. Dearness Allowance (DA)
iii. House Rent Allowance (HRA)
iv. Medical Allowance
v. Conveyance Allowance
vi. Special Allowance
vii. Vehicle Allowance
viii. Incentives or bonuses
ix. Leave Travel Allowance or Concession (LTA / LTC)
x. Telephone / Mobile Phone Allowance.

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Q2.What are the elements of compensation?
3.Define internal equity and explain its importance.
Q4.What are the major issues related to repatriation?
Q5.Describe flexible workforce in detail.

Q6.Mr.Senthil is the HR Manager of First Source Pvt. Ltd. He found that many of the employees have been doing the same work for a long period of time. He decided to enrich some of their jobs. List some of the strategies which can be used by Mr.Senthil to enrich jobs in organisations.

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Spring / February 2012
MU0016 —Performance Management and Appraisal- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1337)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.State the four essential components of 360 degree appraisal.

The 360 degree appraisal works on four essential components:

Self appraisal: Self appraisal gives a chance to the employee to compare his/her abilities, limitations, success with others and judge ones own performance. Self evaluation is an essential part of 360 degree appraisals and therefore contribution of employees to 360 degree performance systems is large and also has a powerful effect on attitude and performance. It provides a “360- degree evaluation” of the employees performance and is measured to be one of the most realistic performance appraisal methods.

Superior appraisal: Superiors appraisal outlines the traditional thought of performance appraisal, where the employees tasks and actual presentation is rated by the superior. This form of assessment involves the evaluation of individuals by supervisors on pre-determined parameters in an employees performance record, as well as the evaluation of team and work scenario by senior managers.
The superiors (supervisors and senior managers) have the authority to change and modify an employees or a teams work on the basis of the assessment of the individual and the team.
Subordinate appraisal: Subordinates feedback involves the evaluation of an individual on
parameters like communication and convincing abilities, superiors ability to assign the work, team leading qualities and so on.

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Subordinate appraisal: Subordinate appraisal is most advantageous when developmental needs are considered. It can also be used in the evaluation of record sheets, but measures should be taken to make sure that subordinates are appraising parameters of which they have knowledge. The subordinates feedback is effective, mainly in evaluating the supervisors interpersonal skills. However, it may not be as proper or convincing for measuring task-oriented skills.

Peer appraisal: Peers usually have an exclusive point of view on a colleagues job performance and individuals are generally very friendly to the idea of rating each other. Peer ratings are considered when the individuals capability is known or the result of the performance can be computed. There are both considerable assistance and serious consequences that must be cautiously considered before including this type of feedback in an all-round appraisal program.

Taken as an effective developmental tool and conducted periodically, a 360 degree application can prove to be highly useful in keeping the track of alterations in others perceptions about the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally more appropriate at the managerial level, as it helps in evaluating their leadership and supervision styles. This method is being successfully used around the globe for improving performance. Some of the companies that have been successfully following
360 degree appraisals are TCS, Microsoft and Wipro Technologies.

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Q2.State the components of a performance management system.
Q3.Explain the traditional methods of performance appraisal in detail.
Q4.What are the aims of performance management?
Q5.What are the major errors that may occur during performance evaluation?

Q6.Mr.Samuel D’Costa is the HR executive at Evergreen Solutions Pvt.Ltd. He found that the performance of the marketing team has been decreasing over the past four months. Suggest measures that he can take up to improve the team performance of the marketing team.

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MU0016 —Performance Management and Appraisal- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1337)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.Explain the ‘Plan-Do-Review-Revise’ cycle of performance management.
Ans.
The Plan-Do-Review-Revise cycle takes place over different time scales and at many levels. Examples for many levels and different time scales would be a community, corporate, service, team,
individual, and so on.

Review

Do Revise

Plan

The stages of Plan-Do-Review-Revise cycle depend on whether you are in an organisation and over what time-scale you are looking at. Following are the stages in the cycle:

Plan: This stage:
o U

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nderstands the current performance.
o Prioritises the work needs to be done.
o Identifies actions that need to be taken.
o Plans for improvement.

Do: This stage:
o Ensures that the proper systems and processes are in place to support improvement.
o Takes action and manages risk.
o Helps people to achieve better performance.

Review: This stage:
o Understands the impact of your actions.
o Reviews performance.
o Speaks to users and stakeholders about their experience.
o Gets a better picture of varying circumstances.

Revise: This stage:
o Uses the lessons learned from review.
o Changes the future plans.
o Ensures that the future action is more appropriate, effective, and efficient.

Q2.What are the features of a Performance management framework?

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Q3.Explain the two psychosomatic approaches of the reward system within an organisation.
Q4.Explain career planning in detail.
Q5.What are the steps to be followed while building an ethical organisational culture?
Q6.The HR department of a software company reviewed the performance of the employees. The HR Manager wants to provide feedback of the performance review to the employees. Describe the factors that have to be looked into while providing performance review feedback.

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Spring / February 2012
MU0017 —Talent Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1338)
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.State some of the practical steps that can be taken to improve the talent acquisition.
Ans.
As customers continue to request services that offer more value than simply HR administrative
relief, more time is spent on evaluating and stepping up to deliver —strategic human capital management (HCM).
To help us understand more of what actually matters to operating managers, we undertook a study of HCM practices in small, high-performing companies in key growth sectors such as technology,
financial services, and professional services. The goal was to build some actual data sets around both HCM practices and outcomes in small high performing companies nationwide, including what
worked and didn’t work to maximize their corporate performance. There were 700 companies in the study population with an average wage of \$102,000, and an average workforce size of 18.1
employees.
The results found that several relatively easy-to-implement human capital best practices are often not being followed–and they’re precisely the ones that can make a significant impact on a
company’s performance, even at an early stage of growth and development. These practices fall
under the categories of Risk Management, Talent Acquisition, Performance Management, and
Compensation and Benefits.
It goes without saying that each of these areas merits its own discussion. But for now, let’s look
closely at T

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alent Acquisition.
It should come as no surprise that hiring practices can create or destroy value. A single bad hire can cost between \$60-120,000, and 10-15% of the employee base (of the companies in our study)
turned due to avoidable hiring errors. That’s two employees a year in a 20 employee company. Not
exactly the kind of track record you want if you’re a nimble firm intent on developing a product and getting to market in record time.
On the flip side, a great hire is worth 3-7 times a mediocre one in terms of efficiency, productivity, and ROI brought back to the company.
But when we looked at our research data, we realized that key executives often didn’t change their
tactics even when the bad numbers started rolling in. Rather than implement a consistent hiring process based on proven best practices, they appeared to be chalking up their problems to current
market conditions.
Conversely, the companies with successful hiring practices did, in fact, have both a hiring strategy and a process in place. They spent more time defining the job description in advance, considered a
broader range of recruitment options to source candidates, and gave their hiring managers more
training than average.
The bottom line? Process matters. It can make a substantial impact upon your hiring costs, and have an even bigger impact by increasing the overall quality of people coming into the organization.
Here, then, are the three effective hiring strategies small and medium-sized businesses can
implement right now:
o Take the time to define a position’s requirements carefully before recruiting
o Use a broad based sourcing strategy to identify candidates across multiple sources
o Train hiring managers and monitor completion of defined steps in a company hiring process

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Establishing a process in regards to Talent Acquisition is one of the aspects of Human Capital
Management

Q2.The talent selection consists of five selection processes. List them.

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Q3.What are the retention strategies adopted by organisations?
Q4.What are the four major keys involved in promotion of ethical behaviour in the workplace?
Q5.What are the steps to be followed while doing an assessment of an organisation?
Q6.Explain the methods adopted to control recruitment and hiring process.

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Spring / February 2012
MU0017 —Talent Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1338)
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1.Describe the five stage approach for building a competency model.
Ans.
The development of competency models depends on the goals and objectives of the organisation,
and the business that the organisation is in.

In a broader sense the competencies are categorised into two types:
1) Core competency.
2) Role specific competency.

The core competencies are those that are required by all employees. For example, initiative and drive might be a core competency for each employee in the organisation.
The key stakeholders are particularly invited to take part in brainstorming sessions while performing a competency modelling for an organisation. Typically the human resources
department take the step to define competencies. The strategic marketing team and the delivery team provide inputs on the competencies and on the gaps they experience during project execution respectively that would provide the organisation a competitive edge. The brainstorming and debate
session helps in enlightening the competencies that the stakeholders perceive to be important.

The five stage approach for building a competency model is as follows:

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a) Assemble the focus team and create a list of processes:
The first stage in building a Leadership Competency Model is to assemble a Focus Team composed of a cross-functional mix of first-line leaders, middle leaders, and senior leaders. Big organisations
might want to build different competency models for the upper and lower line of leadership. These
individuals are Expert Practitioners who are the best people in their fields. With the help of interviews, surveys, observations and other activities, a list is created of the major processes and the requirements needed by leaders to carry them out in an correct fashion.
It needs to be ensured that any observations or interviews are performed on Expert Practitioners. Competencies depend on what an expert does to get his or her job done but not on what others
think.

b) Build behavioural indicators for each process:
This is the second stage where in the major behavioural indicators for each competency are identified by the members of the HR team that needs to be performed to produce the desired
outputs. The behavioural indicators (Skills, Knowledge, Attitudes) needed for greater performance
must be listed after going through each competency.

These behavioural indicators must be:
o Future-oriented rather than problem-oriented as they are creating a powerful tool to guide the organisation.
o A component of a strategic planning or organisational planning process model. The best results are often achieved when built in along with other processes.
c) Categorise the data:
In this stage, categorisation of data takes place. The competency of leadership is divided into three classes which are Core, Leadership, and Professional.
The core competencies are essential of all the people within the organisation.
The leadership competencies are meant for managers and supervisors. And the professional competencies are position specific. Be careful when building professional competencies for leaders.
Leaders from different field often bring new perspective and originality to the organisations. It has
to be ensured that the selected behavioural indicators are really the required skills, knowledge, or attitudes.
[1]For example, the late Seattle School Superintendent, John Stanford, was one of the best things that happened to the district; yet he was a former Army General and City Manager without
experience or education in educational institutions. It would have been a great loss for the district if the professional competency list for his job had been so stringent, that he would never have got the
job.

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d) Order each category:
This stage is used to order each category. The team gives numbers to each competency in its order of magnitude for each category. One process for doing this is to categorise each competency on a Post-it note and then observing each category at a time. After which the competencies are arranged from the most significant competency to the least significant. Finally, it is required to find out if any of the competencies at the bottom of each category can be discarded. The cause behind all this is that the team might have listed too many competencies to be easily measured. Later, this will help them determine a convenient number for a cut-off point. At this point, it is fine for having too many competencies listed. The correct number will be determined during the field testing of the performance appraisal.

e) Validate the competency model:
This stage validates the competency model by order of importance. There are a number of ways of performing this:

ïƒ˜ Duplication: reproduce the original research results. This is done by getting another sample of higher performers, conducting interviews, and deriving a competency model. This new model is then compared to the original one.

ïƒ˜ Jury: Independent jury members, having expert knowledge, deliver their best professional judgment on the model. They must include both internal and external experts. This group presents their opinion of the model as part of a professional report.

ïƒ˜ Survey: A survey is conducted for a selected number of individuals throughout the company and they are asked to number each competency by its order of importance. They are also required to add their own competencies. The competencies should not be listed by the
order ranked by the Competency Team as too many respondents might go with the team instead of thinking for themselves.

ïƒ˜ Departmental focus group: A collective ranking is done as by each department or a representative of departments. The advantage is that more people are involved simultaneously and giving less information to collect. This means that each member of the department contributes and each department submits in one survey of their collected
results. The disadvantages are the assistance given to each department and the time involved in bringing each department together as a group.

ïƒ˜ Structured interviews/observation: Interviews and observations are performed randomly with a number of leaders throughout the organisation. This is used to determine their competencies and to get their opinions of which ones to select for the execution of their job.

ïƒ˜ Benchmarking: Comparing the results of the organisation with another best-of-class organisation.

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ïƒ˜ Balanced scorecard: The competencies required to accomplish the desired organisational goals throughout the organisation are identified by the Expert Practitioners. For example, the scorecard might measure organisational performance across a number of perspectives, such as financial, customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. This process works best for the higher ranks of leaders. Its objective is to rank performance on several indicators that measure the ability for long term growth, rather than short term financial success.

ïƒ˜ Customer service standards: The only competencies measured here are those that help meet required customer service standards. It is used in organisations where performance- oriented budgets are adjusted for service standards, not line items.

ïƒ˜ Interviews: Investigates the attributes of the superior and average performers through the use of critical behaviour interactions. In these interviews, individuals describe their work experiences in which they were effective and ineffective.

The investigation produces two types of competencies:

ïƒ¼ The minimum competencies applied to both average and superior.
ïƒ¼ The major competencies applied only to superior performers.

The employees rate the competencies in terms of their importance for superior job performance. Their responses are then used to develop a record that contains the “best estimate” characteristics of superior performers.

Q2.What is the importance of talent management?
Q3.What are the top 10 talent management challenges faced by an HR?
Q4.List the key elements of talent management system.
Q5.India as nation stands out for it entrepreneurial and well educated talent base. Justify.
Q6.What is the role of an HR in talent management?

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Spring /February 2012
MU0018 —Change Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

Q1.Explain the Greiner’s Growth Model of organizational growth in detail.
Ans.
Greiner’s Growth Model describes various phases that organizations go through as they grow. All
kinds of organizations from design shops to manufacturers, construction companies to professional service firms experience these phases. Each growth phase is made up of a period of stable growth that is followed by a “crisis” when there is a need for major organizational change if the company wants to continue growing.

Crisis here means positive turning point or transition. Originally, Larry E. Greiner proposed this model in 1972 with five phases of growth. Later on he added a sixth phase [12](Harvard Business Review, May 1998). All the six growth phases are described below:

Phase 1: Growth through creativity
Here, the entrepreneurs who have founded the firm will be busy in creating products and opening up markets. There wont be many staff, so informal communication is allowed. Rewards for long hours are through profit share or stock options. However, as more staffs join, production expands and capital is provided then there will be a need for formal communication.
The leadership crisis As the company grows, new systems will be in demand such as manufacturing, accounting, personnel, etc. The founders usually are not experts who manage this new set of systems and cant motivate new employees. This is called Leadership Crisis and phase one ends with this crisis. At this time the company might bring the management that can manage in this new environment or may struggle as founders and try to maintain the old guard.

Phase 2: Growth through direction
This phase is characterized by the following: Functional organization structure.
Accounting systems. Formal and impersonal communication. Concentrate on directing the new, top managers. Growth continues in an environment that has formal communications, budgets and that focus on separate activities like marketing and production. As a financial reward, incentive schemes replace stock.

However, the situation arises where the products and processes become abundant and there wont be enough hours in the day for one person to manage them all. It is not possible for that one person to know much about all these products or services as that of people in the lower hierarchy.
Autonomy crisis
As the company grows further, centralized management becomes inappropriate. Lower level managers gain better knowledge of the marketplace but wont be able to react quickly. The second revolution comes from a demand for greater independence.
By this, the solution to the first phase becomes the crisis for the second phase. The solution to this crisis is to push decision-making responsibility to lower levels. Managers who fail to do this will see their companies being passed by quicker organizations.

Phase 3: Growth through delegation
This phase is characterized by the following: More responsibility in the place and field marketing managers Use of profit sharing and bonuses for incentives Managing of exclusion by top managers Activating management through acquisitions Infrequent communication from the top With middle-level managers given freedom to react fast to opportunities for new products in markets, the organization continues to grow. The top level management just monitors and deals with the big issues like looking at merger or acquisition opportunities. Many businesses struggle at this stage because the managers whose directive approach solved the problems at the end of Phase one finds it difficult to give the responsibility for middle managers. Even then the middle-level managers struggle with their new roles as leaders.

Control crisis Field operations will be broadened and inefficiencies come into the system. Top management loses power over planning, money, technology, and manpower. Narrow-mindedness in field operations symbolize this new revolution. Management must solve it by adopting and implementing special coordination techniques.

Phase 4: Growth through coordination and monitoring
This phase is characterized by the following: Merging of decentralized units into product groups. Establishing and reviewing formal planning procedures.
Hiring staff at headquarters to initiate company-wide programs. Reviewing and distributing capital expenditures across the organization.
Measuring field operations through the criteria of Return-on-Capital. Centralizing technical functions such as data processing.

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Using stock options and profit sharing to encourage identity with the firm. Growth continues with the previously isolated business units re-organized into product groups or service practices. Investment finance is owed centrally and managed according to Return on Investment (ROI) and not just profits.
Red tape crisis A lack of confidence starts between the line and the staff, and between the headquarters and the field. Systems begin to survive their usefulness and field managers begin to dislike formalized control by staff managers who do not understand the local markets. Staff personnel dislike the uncooperative line managers. The organization becomes unmanageable and everyone starts disliking the bureaucratic system that has evolved. A new crisis will come into being.

Phase 5: Growth through collaboration This phase is characterized by the following: Focusing on solving problems through team action. Forming teams for various departments. Reducing and reassigning headquarters staff to teams that consult field units. Developing a matrix organization structure.
Simplifying and combining formal systems. Holding conferences for key managers frequently. Utilizing educational programs to train managers. Using real-time information systems in decision making. Equipping with economic rewards for team performance.

Encouraging experiments in new practices. Growth crisis Here, Greiner guesses about the solution to this new crisis that comes from employees who turn saturated emotionally. They become exhausted both emotionally and physically by the intensity of teamwork and the heavy pressure for innovative solutions. He illustrates this with a European company that created a structure that allowed employees to include a reflective period in their daily activities.

Phase 6: Growth through extra-organizational solutions
Greiner’s added this sixth phase recently and it suggests that growth may continue through merger, outsourcing, networks and other solutions involving other companies.
Growth rates vary between and even within phases. The duration of each phase depends totally on the rate of growth of the market in which the organization operates. The longer a phase lasts, the harder it will be to implement a transition.
This is one of the useful models but not all businesses go through these crises in this order.

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Q2.Explain any two Process based change models.
.
Q3.Describe in detail transformation through McKinsey’s plan.

Q4.What are the skills and ability required for the role of change agent?

Q5.Describe managing change during turbulent times and setting clear expectations.

Q6.What are the five disciplines associated with the organisational learning?

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Spring /February 2012
MU0018 —Change Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.

Q1.What are the three dimensions of organisational structure?
Ans.
According to Robins, organisational structure has three dimensions.

a) Formalisation
Formalisation refers to the degree to which the activities, policies, measures, instructions are carried out and how they are defined, mentioned, and standardised in an organisation. The degree of formalisation is higher when compared with the degree of division of labour, the degree of departmentalisation, the degree of span of control, and the level of delegation of authority.
Some of the benefits of formalisation are as follows:
Formalisation cuts-down the irregularity in the organisation as the activities are standardised.
Formalisation increases coordination as the activities are distinct and specified which ultimately leads to an effective coordination between the managers and the employees.
Formalisation reduces the operation cost of the organisation.
Formalisation reduces conflicts and uncertainties as most of the activities are standardised.
Though formalisation is beneficial, it is not away from criticisms. Some of its criticisms are as follows:
As most of the activities are standardised, there is no scope for creativity and flexibility.
It is difficult to change the rules that are followed in the organisation.
If any new rules are formed and implemented, employees struggle a lot to cope up with it.
Though formalisation has certain limitations, it is used in many organizations as it effects in smooth and effective running of organizations. Also, it builds good relationship and efficiency within the organisation.

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b) Centralisation
Centralisation refers to the degree to which decision-making is given importance in the organisation. Centralisation is one among the fourteen principles stated by [2]Henry Fayol. His principle says Diminishing the role of subordinates in decision-making is centralisation and decentralisation is the opposite of centralisation. In centralisation, control and decision-making are made by the top level of management but they have less power. It is impractical to have absolute centralisation as it would deprive subordinates based on power, authority and duties. The concept of centralisation plays a major role in the survival of small organizations as they face competition in the market.

Importance is given to decentralisation only when there is larger organisation as decision making has to be placed in the centre of the operating level. It is because of the complexity of industries in terms of size, interdependence of work flow, complex tasks and physical barriers within and among
groups. Decentralisation pushes down the authority and power of decision-making to the lower levels in the organisation. However, it is a systematic effort to hand over power and authority to the lowest levels. The concept of decentralisation can also be related to fundamental principles of democratic management as every individual gets justified admiration for their worth.
c) Complexity
Complexity is
Q2.Describe the role of leaders in managing change.

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Q3.What are the challenges that managers face in implementing successful change?
Q4.What are the requirements for making organisational change?
Q5.How do change managers recognize resistance of employees to change?
Q6.Change management plays an important role in any organisation, as the task of managing change is not an easy one. Justify.

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0015 —Maintenance Management- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1340)
Assignment – Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Briefly explain the maintenance systems that are practiced in production/service units by providing few examples.

Maintenance Management Systems
Maintenance activity is defined and managed as a process in order to achieve maximum pay off. Hence there is a need to identify a maintenance management system that helps the organisation to work within an integral ‘Life cycle management model’ covering all the machineries and equipments.
Optimum performance of the maintenance management system and process will happen when the organisation encourages a close working between the production and maintenance department. It also makes these departments jointly responsible for achieving success in their business plans.
There are many critical areas and factors contributing for realising the best performance and some of them are listed below:
– The valuable assets of the company must be maintained with a focus on the importance of their functions, as these leads to the desired performance target.
– The effective maintenance is to preserve the asset for its high rate of performance and not just preserving for the function alone.
– Process need to be established in order to efficiently manage maintenance activity and then to evaluate the performance against targets. For this, the maintenance department has to evolve a suitable maintenance system and processes that ensures continuous improvements in the performance. This process evolved will act as a model and is useful throughout the asset life cycle of the machinery or equipment. This type of model is explained as “Life cycle management system’, under section 2.3.

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– Maintenance crew and the supervisory personnel in the maintenance department need to know their roles, responsibilities, and goals to be achieved, using system as means to achieve them. This concept of combining asset life with the management processes is also termed as ‘Asset Management’.
– A systematic program evolved by the maintenance management will increase the efficiency of the personnel working, resulting in the increased life of the machineries and hence the profitability. There must be a synergy in total operations. The following factors contributes to the synergy:
– There must be fixed goals for the use and care of the productive assets.
– Both maintenance and production should work together and develop systems and procedures for effective performance
– As profitability is the criteria, both performance and durability targets should become the drivers
– All resources must be utilised optimally to achieve success in the process.
– Resource management or asset management requires sound decision making by the respective authority for working effectively in the system. There must be opportunities in the system to constantly improve upon and obtain the best business value for the organisation
After learning about the maintenance management system and realising the critical areas and factors for obtaining best performance, let us now get a brief description on the asset life cycle management.

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Q2. What are the three stages in the lifecycle management of any machinery? Explain in brief the Life cycle management system?

Q3. Explain briefly the metrics that can be developed by the maintenance department to identify the gap and take action to achieving the desired level of performance

Q4. Distinguish between preventive and breakdown maintenance citing examples.
Q5. “Organisations normally adopt a combination of one or more of the above methods. And these options are justified if the resultant savings are more than the total costs associated with any one of these methods” —Substantiate this statement.
Cost implications of maintenance practices

Q6. A valuable tool for improving maintenance effectiveness is to use fault tree analysis. What does this tree means and how it is used as a valuable tool for electrical, hydraulic and other complex systems in isolating physical components using circuits and attends to the problem?

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0015 —Maintenance Management- 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1340)
Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. What are the maintenance planning principles? How they contribute to the success of planning?

Planning Principles
There are six principles of planning and these are:
1. Organising planning functions with separate responsibility and identity.
2. Making planners to concentrate on future works as one of their primary tasks.
3. Asking planners to maintain simple base files as part of their work systems.
4. Training planners to expertise their job and dictate the job requirements through their dedicated work plans.
5. Helping planners to recognise the skill of the crafts required and arrange.
6. Organising planners to work sample their tasks while execution and hence measure the planning effectiveness.
Let us look into each of these in detail:
1. Organising planning functions with separate responsibility and identity
In this principle, the planning function is organised as a separate function. Personnel who are most experienced and having expertise as craft maintenance crew are selected and assigned to the planning section. This type of selecting within the department and assigning a separate function will further facilitate specialisation not only in planning processes, but also focuses on the future works to be executed.
It is better that these identified Planners report to a different supervisor who will be responsible to providing direction and has an obligation to complete the assigned work in an expeditious manner, with a minimal interruptions.

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The planners should engage in preparatory works. Planning activities must flow smoothly across the maintenance department. Planners need to work closely with the maintenance crew for proper execution of work with consistency. The crew members will focus exclusively on executing assigned work, and gain advantageous position as all the preparatory works involved is accomplished by concerned planner.
Planning contributes to scheduling also. This scheduling is done in such a manner that the maintenance department will utilise all their resources optimally. The lack of planning effort may decrease the number of work assignments to crew members.
2. Making planners to concentrate on future works as one of their primary tasks
Principle of planning is forward thinking with a foresight. By preparing jobs in advance, the planning facilitates improvement in labor productivity and allows the maintenance crew to start their assigned job without waiting for any resources or with blockages.
After assigned job is completed, the lead technicians or the supervisor gives feedback to the Planning section. The feedback consists of any problems the crew faced while executing the work, any changes they did in the original plan during the execution, and any other information for the planner to use in preparing future plans and schedules. The planners ensure that they will use this feedback in their future planning to improve the overall effectiveness. This valid feedback information as a record is filed separately for their future reference and use.

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3. Asking planners to maintain simple base files as part of their work systems
Planning maintains a simple and secured file system, with the file code numbers indicated on it. A separate file is created for each equipment or machinery that is available in production shops and those within the purview of the planning section. Each file will have proper indications of the specific tag number of such machines. This type of file system enables planners to utilise the equipment data and the experience of the previous work. It also helps planners to prepare and improve the future work plans. The cost incurred for each of the previous tasks is also recorded in these equipment files.
In case any decision was taken to replace the equipment or its costly parts, the same is also recorded. As the majority of the maintenance tasks are repetitive in nature over a period of time, this type of maintaining exclusive files with information of work plans, cost and so on, will help assists planners or plant engineers to take suitable decisions on the repair or replacement. All concerned are duly trained on how to use the information from these file for decision making.

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4. Training planners to expertise their job and dictate job requirements through their dedicated work plans
Planners use their personal experience and the information available in the file system, as explained above, to develop work plans. Primary responsibility of planners is to avoid anticipated work delays through their plans that include the requirements of quality and safety. To prepare such job plans, which improves the overall productivity, planners will rely greatly on their personal skills and experience, apart from using the existing data or information in the equipment files. In case of any unusual maintenance tasks must be carried out and earlier such issues have not propped up, the planners will then consult and take necessary help from Plant Engineering or Production departments.
5. Helping planners to recognise skills of the crafts required and arrange
The Planning section should recognise skills of the crafts required when firming up the scope of the maintenance work. Planners obtain clarifications from the indenting section as to what skills they propose to have in the person for such maintenance jobs. They also ask the intending sections for suggestions, which will help in having a better coordination. The planners then evolve the general strategy for the work to be done such as repair or replace, preventive or breakdown policy. In case procedures for carrying out a job are not specified in the system file, the planners must also evolve a strategy to lay out the procedures for carrying out that job.

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This principle dictates that planners calls for a minimum craft skill in the job plan and hence, it depends on the available workforce being sufficiently skilled to execute the job. Accordingly, the craft technicians will use their expertise to make the specified repair or replacement.
Here again the planners and technicians work together over repeated jobs to develop better procedures and checklists. Supervisors must train technicians, wherever applicable and give proper support and guidance. Technicians must execute the job as planned without much deviation. Any deviations from the job plan is required, there must be an approval from the planner before proceeding.
Planners give information required for supervisor to schedule the job and control required while executing. Skilled technicians give the feedback on the executed job plans, thus contributing additional information for future plans.
6. Organising planners to work sample their tasks while execution and hence measure the planning effectiveness

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Q2. Explain briefly the ABC classification and reasons behind recommending ABC and VED classifications for managing inventory of spare parts for maintenance?
Classification of Inventories

Q3. Explain briefly how the principles of scheduling, when followed, will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the maintenance management?

.

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Q4. Explain briefly the five levels of data developed in UMS

Q5. Explain briefly the importance of ‘Depreciation’ and its disposition while calculating the capital expenditure of the equipment to be replaced. What are the depreciation methods that are normally used in an organisation?

Q6. What are the ranges that we can normally expect for each of the OCE factors? Explain how an improvement in 10 % of wrench time will offer 25% improvement in utilisation of the crew and hence the OCE

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0016 —Quality Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1341)
Assignment – Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Elucidate a relationship between strategy and data quality.

Correlation Between Strategy and Data Quality
Organisations are turning to be more dependent on data; nearly every modern organisation depends upon data and creates huge quantities of data. So, to meet the requirements of the organisation, a comprehensive data management program is necessary. But data is distinctive from other resources and requires diverse management techniques.
Organisational framework required to tackle the above concerns often does not exist. Hence, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive data quality strategy that can address many of these issues. For example, as with many organisations, formal data quality strategy was not documented for the New Zealand Ministry of Health. A planned data quality framework was later introduced which informed the overall development of a data quality strategy for the Ministry of Health. All results of the development of the strategy were documented for each collection of data. And it enabled internal members to access all the information about data collection. The documents are:
– Guidelines for the usage of data and original purpose for the collection
– Roles and responsibilities
– Results of assessment of collection using data quality framework
– Action plan for quality improvement
– Current and previous data quality initiatives
The data was available both on paper and Web.

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As defined by Joseph Juran[3], “Data are of high quality, if they are fit for their intended uses in operations, decision-making and planning. Data are fit for use if they are free of defects and possess desired features”. Hence, a data quality strategy in an organisation is a must to define the level of quality required to make the data useful. The data quality strategy also needs to look forward to the future potential uses of the data.

Q2. Briefly describe Deming’s 14 points philosophy. Elucidate Juran’s trilogy in brief.

Q3. Describe the evolution of Six Sigma in General Electric. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Six Sigma in brief.
The Evolution of Six Sigma
Q4. What were the improvements made to QMS? Why do think management responsibility is an essential requirement of QMS?
Improvements made to Quality Management Systems
Q5. Explain the goals and programs of strategic plan. What are the reasons of failure of the strategic plans?

Q6. What are the characteristics of Ideal indicator? What are the two Six Sigma models undertaken for Quality improvement?

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0016 —Quality Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1341)
Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. What are the different types of Reliability estimates? What are the important components of retest reliability?

Reliability Estimations
A major part of any quality program is the assurance that the products are in accordance with the performance objectives. Reliability can be estimated through a number of methods that are grouped into two types: single-administration and multiple-administration.
Multiple-administration methods require two assessments. In the test-retest method, reliability is estimated as the correlation of the Pearson product-moment coefficient between two administrations of the same measure. In the alternate forms method, reliability is estimated by the correlation of the Pearson product-moment coefficient between two different forms of a measure administrated together. The idea behind test/retest is that one should get the same score on test 1 as well as in the test 2.
The three main components to this method are as follows:
1. Apply the measurement instrument at two separate times for each subject.
2. Calculate the correlation between the two separate measurements.
3. Assume there is no change in the underlying condition between test 1 and 2.

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Single-administration methods include the split-half and internal consistency reliability methods. The split-half method considers the two halves of a measure as alternate forms. This “halves reliability” estimate is then moved to the full test length using the Spearman-Brown prediction formula. Internal consistency estimate groups questions in a questionnaire to estimate reliability. For example, one could write two sets of four questions that measure the same concept (example, class performance) and after collecting the responses, run a correlation between those two groups of four questions to decide if the instrument is consistently measuring the concept. The most common internal consistency estimate is Cronbach’s alpha, which is usually interpreted as the mean of all possible split-half coefficients.
Clarity of expression (for written assessments), increasing the measure and informal means help to improve reliability. However, item analysis, a formal psychometric is considered the most effective way to increase reliability. This analysis is a combination of computation of item difficulties and item discrimination indices. The latter index involving calculation of correlations between the items and sum of the item scores of the complete test. If too difficult, too easy, and/or near-zero or negative discrimination items are replaced with better items, the reliability of the measure will increase.[3]

(where Î» is the failure rate)
Measures of Reliability

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Most common form of reliability is the retest reliability, which refers to the reproducibility of values of a variable when the measurement is done more than once on the same product. Here, we take the example of 10 people weighed twice with a gap of two weeks between tests. This example is used to explain the three important components of retest reliability: change in the mean — typical error, retest correlation — kappa coefficient and alpha reliability.
1. Change in the Mean
The difference between the two tests conducted is the change in the mean. The change

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consists of two components: a random change and a systematic change.
Random change in the mean is due to the sampling error. This kind of change arises from the typical error, which is like a randomly selected number added to or subtracted from the true value every time the measurement is conducted.
Systematic change in the mean is a systematic change in the value between two measures. This variation in the mean value is an important issue when subjects perform a series of trials as part of a tracking the program. The subjects are usually tracked to determine the effects of an intervention (example, a change in diet or training), so it is important to perform trials to make learning effects or other systematic changes insignificant before applying the intervention.
Typical Error of Measurement
In the above example, the first few weights show a slight trend downwards —it shows that the subjects lose a bit of weight, so there is a random variation of about a kilogram. This random variation is the typical error. It is quantified as the standard deviation in each subject’s measurements between tests, after any shifts in the mean have been taken into account. The variation/error is also known as the within-subject standard deviation, or the standard error of measurement.
Coefficient of variation is an important form of typical error. This is the typical error is expressed as a percentage of the subject’s mean score. Another form of within-subject variation is reliability limits of agreement, which represent the 95% likely range for the difference between a subject’s scores in two tests[4].
2. Retest Correlation
When the test and retest values are determined, it is obvious that the closer the values are to the true value, the higher is the reliability. Therefore, a retest correlation is one way to quantify reliability. A correlation of 1.00 represents perfect agreement between tests, whereas 0.00 represents no agreement whatever. In our example the correlation is 0.95, which represents very high reliability.

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Kappa Coefficient: Reliability of Nominal Variables
Reliability can also be defined for supposed variables, to represent the constancy with which something is classified on several occasions. The best measure is something called the kappa coefficient. It is equivalent to a correlation coefficient and has the same range of values (-1 to +1).
3. Alpha Reliability
The alpha reliability of the variable is derived by assuming that each item represents a retest of a single item. For example, if there are five items, it is as though the five scores are the retest scores for one item. But reliability is calculated such that it represents the reliability of the mean of the items and not the reliability of any single item. Hence, the alpha reliability of 10 items would be higher than that of 5 similar items.[5]
Alpha reliability is regarded as a measure of internal consistency of the mean of the items at the time of supervision of the questionnaire. It refers to the ability to reproduce the results whenever it is required. This is essentially enhances faith in the statistical analysis and the results obtained.

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Q2. What are the different types of Quality Costs? What is the relevance of Cost and Schedule Information in an organisation?

Q3. What are the basic steps involved in audit reporting? Explain. What is the purpose of product auditing?

Q4. What is quality culture? Explain the five key drivers that are essential for developing quality culture.

Q5. For modern products, explain the concepts on what on which design reviews are based.

Q6. What are the five dimensions of the quality that were identified by the SERVQUAL model?

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0017 —Advanced Production Planning and Control – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1342)
Assignment – Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Explain briefly the main tasks of dispatching, inspecting, expediting, evaluating and controlling inventory and so on by production controls department.

Tasks and control activities of production control
– Dispatching.
– Expediting.
– Inspecting.
– Evaluating.
– Controlling inventories, controlling scrap and analysis of work progress and controlling transportation used for production activities.
Dispatching: Dispatching involves setting production activities in motion by releasing work orders. These work orders are invariably accompanied by process/instruction sheets. In other words, the process of dispatching authorises the start of the production operations.
Dispatching also involves collecting and moving the materials from stores, collecting and issuing tools, fixtures, drawings and specification sheets. It also includes route cards, inspection schedules, and internal material handling to machines. In addition, it includes the returning jigs, fixtures, moving special tools back to stores, and then moving the accepted materials to the next stage of operation or to stores.
It is found that in large production units, centralised dispatching has more advantages as compared to decentralised dispatching.

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Expediting or Progressing: Expediting is a tool, which works as an executive arm that checks the progress of the work. Expediting is also a logical step after the dispatching function. Expediting maintains and ensures the successful completion of the job. This function has to keep a close liaison with scheduling, in order to provide efficient feedback and prompt review of targets and schedules.
The Need for expediting arises because of the following reasons:
– Delay in supply of raw materials.
– Higher absenteeism of labour.
– Frequent changes in specifications and route cards.
– Changes required in delivery schedule.
– Breakdown of machines.
– Improper coordination and communications between the departments and so on.
Inspecting: Inspection is a major control function. Its findings and criticisms are of great significance in the execution of current plans and in the future planning stages especially when the limitation of processes, methods, and manpower is known. This is also essential to improve production methods and cost implications of quality at the design stage. The need for inspection arises due to the following reasons:
– Delay in supply of materials.
– Excessive absenteeism in any section.
– Changes in design specifications.
– Changes in delivery schedules.
– Machines under breakdown/periodical maintenance.
– Errors in design drawings and hence rejections/reworks.
Evaluating: Evaluating is the assessment of the performance effectiveness with the help of a link between control and future planning process. A feedback mechanism here will help in the long run, as the evaluated past experience will help to improve methods and utilisation of facilities.
Controlling Inventories and Scrap, Analysing Work Progress: Other additional responsibilities for the dependent functions like control of inventories, control of scrap, control of transportation and so on are integrated with the Control section of the PPC. This is because many organisations feel that this type of integrated control department is an essential link and will help achieve maximum results.

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Q2. Explain briefly the functions of planning in “Facility Planning” for production activities?

Q3. What are the merits and demerits of batch production? Briefly explain the salient features of PPC for Job production.

Q4. How do you classify forecasts? Explain Time Series Methods.

Classification of Forecasting Methods

Q5. Explain inventory Management and Control. List the benefits of inventory control.
Inventory Management and Control

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Q6. Define deterministic model of inventory control. Explain how economic order quantity can be calculated by model 1.

Summer 2011- May drive

OM0017 —Advanced Production Planning and Control – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1342)
Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Write a note on: a) Lean Manufacturing,b) Agile Manufacturing, c) CIM

Lean Manufacturing
Lean manufacturing is an organised approach in identifying and eliminating waste through continuous development of manufacturing the product at the demand of the customer. In other words, lean manufacturing is a scheme that looks to produce a high level of output with a minimum of inventory.
From the time when Henry Ford invented the assembly line, industrial trendsetters have continuously focused on enhancement through a variety of different manufacturing techniques and this is where the lean manufacturing was successful.
In the earlier days, lean manufacturing centres focused on placing small stocks of inventory in planned locations around the assembly line, instead of a centralised warehouse. These small stocks are known as kanban[2]. The usage of the kanban considerably minimises waste and improves productivity on the factory floor.
In addition to removal of waste, lean manufacturing looks to provide the finest and optimum quality with the help of a method where every part is tested and examined soon after its manufacturing is done. In the process of testing, if there is any defect, the manufacturing line stops the production in order to detect the problem or defect at the earliest stage. There are a lot of similarities between lean manufacturing and the Total Quality Management techniques. Both of these techniques provide authorisation to the workers at the assembly line with the confidence that those close to the manufacturing have superior knowledge on how the manufacturing or the production system should work.
Under the lean manufacturing technique, suppliers deliver small amounts of materials on a daily basis. In addition, the machines may not respond to their full capacity. As you already know, the main objective of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste, which means anything which does not add value to the end product is eliminated. With reference to this, large inventories are seen as a type of waste, which carry a huge cost. Another major focus under lean manufacturing is the process of allowing the workers to make the manufacturing decisions at the lowest level possible.

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One more aspect, which is important to know, is that the supply chain management’s partnership with suppliers matters a lot in lean manufacturing. This facilitates a swift flow of parts and products to the retail shop floor.
Let us discuss about the implementation of lean manufacturing technique. Well, in order to implement the lean manufacturing process, it is important that each employee or worker is provided with significant training or has a required competency. After this training, implementing the following steps will help in implementation of successful lean manufacturing.

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– Deciding which characteristics of lean manufacturing apply to your organisation and prioritising according to your requirements and capabilities.
– Classifying your workers into groups according to similar training requirements.
– Recognising your production programs and making a matrix, or a chart.
– Making a decision, whether you will hire an external consultant or take the suggestions of internal employees.
– Planning a time frame or listing according to work area or personnel.
– Setting up an immediate schedule and beginning the task according to the schedule.
Thus, it ends the discussion on lean manufacturing techniques.
Agile Manufacturing
In the previous section, we explained about lean manufacturing. Now, you will be introduced to the agile manufacturing techniques, but first let us understand the term Agility. Agility is defined as the capacity of changing quickly or adapting to change quickly. The production technology used by the manufacturing units decides the capability of designers, marketers and production personnel to share the common database of parts and products. This is a major and one of the vital contributing factors, which a manufacturer must posses in order to be an agile manufacturer.
Therefore, the agile manufacturing technique can be explained as the ability of surviving and flourishing in a competitive atmosphere of constant and unpredictable change by reacting swiftly and effectively to changing markets, driven by customer-designed products, demands, and services.
The organisations or the companies, which have implemented agile manufacturing techniques, always have a very strong bonding or network with the vendors, suppliers, and other related companies. In addition, the companies also have a strong network with many other supportive teams that work together with the same organisation with reference to the manufacturing of a quality product. The organisation can retool facilities swiftly, discuss upon new agreements with suppliers and other partners with reference to the changing market, and take other initiative steps to fulfil customer demands. This means that the organisation can increase manufacturing of products with a high consumer demand as well as redesign products to respond to issues that have emerged in the open market.
As you all know, markets can change very swiftly, especially in the global economy. An organisation, which cannot adapt swiftly to change, will find itself left behind, and once an organisation starts to lose its market share, it can succumb to a complete loss rapidly. The primary goal of agile manufacturing is to keep the company always ahead of the competition, so that consumers think of that company first, which continues innovating and introducing new products. The main reason behind this is the strong financial stability and a strong customer support base.

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In the case, where an organisation or a company plans to shift to agile manufacturing technique, the companies can always take advantage of specialists, who provide solutions to companies and who help in improving or converting the existing manufacturing techniques into agile manufacturing. These specialists can offer a tailored solution with reference to the type of sector that a company is involved in. The specialists make a company to be competitive as quickly as possible with their tested agile manufacturing techniques.
It will also be useful for you to know that there are some key issues in agile manufacturing. The key issues in agile manufacturing are:
– The “I am a Horse” Syndrome.
– The Existing Culture of Manufacturing.
The “I am a Horse” syndrome: You must be aware of an old saying where it states that hanging a sign on a cow which states “I am a horse” does not really make a cow, a horse. Similarly, there is an absolute danger that agile manufacturing can be a victim to the unlucky tendency in manufacturing circles to follow the trend and to re-label everything with a new fashionable name. The danger is divided into two fold. First, it will offer agile manufacturing a bad reputation and second, the management will only get a superficial understanding, which leaves them helpless to those competitors that take agile manufacturing seriously.

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The existing culture of manufacturing: The most vital thing which will hold an organisation or a company back from making a quantum leap forward to explore agile manufacturing, is the traditions and the accepted beliefs and values of the organisations. Without any doubt, the key success factor is the skill to dominate both the hard and soft issues in change management. Nevertheless, if an organisation wants to achieve agility in the manufacturing enterprises, then it should first try to completely understand the nature of its existing values, traditions, and cultures. An organisation needs to realise this understanding as there is a need to come to terms with the fact that much of what everyone in an organisation have taken for granted probably no longer applies in the world of agile manufacturing. Accomplishing this understanding is the first step in facing the pain with the existing culture to the historically redundant ideas.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
In this section, we will discuss about Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM). Computer Integrated Manufacturing can be defined as the utilisation of computers in management and control of manufacturing processes, such as cutting and forming machines, automatically coordinating the operations of conveyor systems and riveting and welding machines. In other words, it can be defined as a manufacturing approach that uses computers to control the entire manufacturing process.
The CIM was promoted in the 1980’s by the machine tool manufacturers and the Society for Manufacturing Industries (SME). Some of the procedures involved in the CIM are:
– Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM).
– Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP).
– Computer Numerical Control Machine Tools (CNC).
– Flexible Machining Systems (FMS).
It is very important to know that the heart of Computer Integrated Manufacturing is the Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM).
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems are very important to an organisation, as they reduce the production or the manufacturing durations. Computer Aided Manufacturing and Computer Aided Design is a high end integrating technology tool between manufacturing and design. Computer Aided Design techniques make use of group expertise to produce similar techniques for swift recovery, where the drawing boards are replaced by electronic files. Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing incorporated systems offer design, drafting, scheduling, and production capabilities. Computer Aided Manufacturing offers the provision for instrument path cutters to take on the raw material and Computer Aided Design offers electronic part images.

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The images or the computer graphics offered by the Computer Aided Design permits the designers to produce electronic images. These images can be depicted in two dimensions, or as a three dimensional (3D) solid component or assembly, which can be rotated as it is viewed. The superior software programs can test and analyse designs before the production of a prototype. Finite element analysis programs permits engineers to forecast the effects of loading and stress points on a part.
When the designing of a part is complete, the created graphics can be used to program the instrument path with the machine part. When incorporated with an NC postprocessor[3], the NC program that can be used in a Computer Numerical Control Machine Tools (CNC) machine is created. The designed graphics can also be used to produce or design fixtures and tools. In addition, it can also be used for inspection by coordinate measuring machines. It is observed that the more downstream use is made of Computer Aided Design, the more time is saved in the overall process.
Process planning translates design information into the process steps and instructions to efficiently and effectively manufacture product. As the design process is supported by many computer-aided tools, computer-aided process planning (CAPP) has evolved to simplify and improve process planning and achieve more effective use of manufacturing resources.
The other important system is the Flexible Machining Systems (FMS). It is the additional concept of cellular manufacturing and group technology concepts. Using incorporated Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing many parts can be programmed and designed in half the time it would normally take at the time of actual engineering task. The elements of a program can be downloaded to a Computer Numerical Control Machine centre under the control of a Flexible Machining System’s host computer. The Flexible Machining Systems host can program the Computer Numerical Control Machine Tools and the parts necessary to execute the task.
Therefore, it is understood that computer integrated manufacturing can include different combinations of the tools listed above.

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Q2. Differentiate between forward and backward scheduling. Explain automation and the drawbacks associated with automation
Q3. Explain in brief about Priority Rules for Scheduling?
Following four jobs are at a machine with its due dates of delivery mentioned. Today being 20th determine the critical ratio for each job and assign the priority ranking.
Job Due date Remaining processing time
P 26 8
Q 24 2
R 22 2
S 29 13
a) No of working days left =

Q4. Bring out the differences between productivity and flexibility. And is productivity compromised by introducing flexibility in the manufacturing process? Comment

Q5. Explain in brief the Goldratt’s “Theory of constraint” and the five focussed steps of TOC recommended for solving the constraints/ problems.

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Summer 2011- May drive

OM0018 — Technology Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1343)
Assignment – Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Define the term technology. Write a short note on evolution and growth of technology.

Technology
Technology is derived from the Greek word “technologia” in which “techne” means craft and “logia” means saying. On the whole, technology means having the knowledge of making something.
Evolution and Growth of Technology
The history of technology dates back to the time when humans were able to prepare some simple tools with easily available natural resources. History indicates that the advancement in technology had a major leap with the invention of the wheel. From the invention of the wheel, much usage of the technology has started. The technology in all the fields has grown to a larger extent and now we can see the technology involved in almost all the things we use in our daily life.
We know that there are some advanced technologies at present which include the printing press, telephone and Internet which have helped us to communicate all over the globe.
Till now we have mainly concentrated on technology management in general. Now let us learn about technology management in India.
Technology management in India
The Government of India is mainly focussing on the development of science and technology in the present world. The Indian industries are operating under the controlled and regulated economy. The technology management is generally lacking at the enterprise level except a few enterprises. There are many Indian companies which are able to develop and produce the internationally competitive products. The companies which use different kinds of technologies, and are excelling today, in India are the Punjab tractors, tata automobiles, amul food and certain drug and chemical industries. In the same way, there are many Research and Development (R&D) institutions which have developed and commercialised the technologies in the areas of drugs, chemicals, food technology, and computer software.
The productivity of the Indian industries largely depends on the technologies that are imported. Most of the technologies that are used in the Indian industries are cost effective.
In July 1991, government of India introduced the new industrial policy that mainly focussed on international competitiveness, quality, efficiency and exports. This helped in the change in operating environment of the Indian industry. Because of this, very well planned technologies were developed at the enterprise level.
These days, the companies are paying more attention on technology in order to be more competitive in the business market. It is not only the large scale industries that require the technology management; even the small scale industries also need a technology management to face the competitive world of today.

Q2. Citing an example, state and explain the reasons that compel a company to go for the new technology.

Q3. Describe some characteristics of technology forecasting. Explain in brief about the six phases in technology forecasting process.

Q4. Write a short note on technology strategy. Explain in brief about the innovation management.

Q5. What is the importance of technology diffusion? What are the benefits of technology absorption?

Q6. Explain the implementation of new technology. Briefly describe the automation decisions.

Summer 2011- May drive

OM0018 — Technology Management – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1343)
Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks. Answer all the questions.
Q1. Explain Technology Generation. Explain Technology Development. Discuss the importance Technology Generation and Development.

Technology Generation
We will start our discussion with the meaning of ‘technology generation’.
Technology generation and development is often identical with the term “Research and Development (R&D)”. However, technology generation involves R&D efforts, while technology development involves further stages of translating R&D efforts into marketable products, processes and services. Basically, we can consider the R&D process as having four distinct stages as shown in figure 8.1.

Figure 8.1: Stages of R & D Process
As per the figure 8.1, the recognition of a need for innovation is one of the inspirations for R&D. A “Research” on existing knowledge for satisfying identified need helps in idea generation-this is the” need push” which is shown in the figure 8.1. The other primary motivation for R&D is to find potential applications for advances in knowledge. “Research” on existing activity for introducing new knowledge also helps in idea generation-this is the “technology push” as shown in the figure 8.1. The “development” includes creation, design and production and marketing of the generated idea. Through the entire process, its ideas and knowledge which are being followed, and the process is not complete, until the new idea is converted into a marketable product or service, which can be a hardware or software intensive technology.
Let us understand the objectives of Corporate R & D and R&D Projects.
Corporate research and development is the principal corporate asset for long-term technological competitiveness. We can classify corporate research activities by the purpose of the research:
– To provide new business enterprise.
– To explore possible new technology basis.
The R&D projects tend to go through the following stages:
– Basic research and invention.
– Applied research and functional prototype.
– Engineering prototype and testing.
– Production prototype and pilot production.
– Product testing and modification.
– Initial production and sales.
The first three stages are usually called “research”, while stages four to six are called “development’; hence, the term “research and development (R&D)”. Each stage of innovating a new product is expensive, with the expense increasing by an order of magnitude at each stage. The management decisions to continue from research to development are therefore very important. Overall, the expenses of modern industry for R&D were considerable. The major purpose of research is to reduce technical risk before production-scale investment is committed. It is generally reported that at each stage, the cost rises by orders of magnitudes in the ratio 1:10. It is precisely this reason, that technology generation and development is costlier than basic R&D, and hence all countries or all enterprises are not able to pursue these activities at similar levels.
Technology Development
In-house R&D: Technology development activities are generally carried out through setting up of separate in-house R&D units within the business, managed and headed by a well-qualified and experienced chief, directly reporting to the top management. However, this unit has close interactions with other departments within the company and there could even be exchange of personnel among different departments. The strength and facilities in the in-house R&D unit would depend upon the technology policy of the company and the nature of the business. In large companies, there are sometime R&D labs for each department and a central R&D lab for major R&D projects. Industrial R&D is mostly product or process oriented with specific objectives and time schedule; and not basic research. Incremental developmental efforts or import substitution efforts are generally common in most of the industries in developing countries including India, while emphasis is on new technologies or new applications of technologies in advanced countries.
– Co-operative R&D: A group of companies in a particular industrial sector promotes an R&D centre as a society or a non-profit making company. The R&D is funded by the participating companies and the government. This R&D centre undertakes R&D as per the requirements of the companies in their larger interest, and sets up expertise and facilities of common nature and which are usually expensive. A company can also support specific projects to this centre. Cooperative research facilities are normally utilised for the projects which are not of cautious nature from the business point of view. Otherwise, most important part of the R&D can be done at the centre and the remaining part involving finer details or critical technological aspects affecting the competitiveness is done at the in-house R&D division of the company.
– Contract research: A company may contract components of technology development to suitable R&D organisations, academic institutions, or consultants or experts. The in-house R&D unit may coordinate the progress of the activities, to develop the desired technologies. This approach usually requires considerable internal technological and managerial capabilities coupled with a strong Science and Technology (S&T) information base.
– R&D collaboration: A company may collaborate with another company in areas of common interest, if costs of development are high. Such inter-firm collaborative R&D efforts are becoming common in developed countries mainly due to high costs and shorter technology life cycles. It is found in areas such as micro-electronics, materials, information technologies, bio-technologies, and so on. A firm may also collaborate with the public funded or privately funded R&D institutions on case-to-case basis, where R&D results are shared mutually, and so are the expenses. A company in India may even collaborate with another company or R&D institution abroad, on mutually agreed terms.

Q2. Explain the dimensions of technology transfer and features of technology package.

Q3. Briefly describe the concept of technology choice. List and explain the steps involved in technology assessment process.

Q4. Briefly explain the factors influencing the high performance innovative technology based organisations.

Q5. What is Research and Development (R&D), and how is it managed? Explain the different categories of Intellectual Property Management.

Q6. Discuss the technology assessment and environmental impact analysis.