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Q1.Why are ERP systems said to be flexible? Explain with an example.

1Ans :


A flexible ERP system can bring consistency and profitability to your company. A flexible ERP system allows your business to respond rapidly to any changing condition – it lets your business provide any company department or employee with the data required to improve decision-making, regardless of whether data is needed from one or several systems.

ERP System Flexibility Benefits

Choosing the right ERP system allows you to transfer your business processes onto your business systems, offering the consistency and timeliness to manage variability. This eliminates the need and high cost of integrating your existing systems.

Also with effective ERP systems manual processes are eliminated as there’s no need for time-consuming and unreliable paper-based procedures. ERP systems allow data to flow easily throughout your operations the moment it appears in your systems. This provision of timely information allows for a quick and efficient response from every employee in your company.

With ERP systems manual, makeshift processes are replaced with well-organized ones allowing for overall business flexibility and effectiveness. ERP systems allow increased visibility into real-time processes which enables prompt ordering of the right goods and materials.

Choosing an ERP system that allows you to deal with changes to your business will prove a valuable investment well into the future. See our free white paper on 9 Things to Consider When Selecting an ERP System.


Sage Accpac ERP

Sage Accpac ERP is an award winning business management system built for small and mid-sized businesses. Sage Accpac ERPis a true browser-based ERP solution that is flexible and customized for your specific needs.




Sage Accpac ERP Freedom

Sage Accpac ERP gives you freedom of choice and advanced functionality regardless of your size, industry and, functional requirements.  Select from Microsoft SQL, Pervasive SQL, or Oracle, databases relying on a world-class, object oriented multi-tiered architecture.

Sage Accpac ERP Solution

To learn more about why Sage Accpac ERP is the perfect solutions for your business, download On The Hotseat and find out more on what your peers are facing with their current ERP systems and how your peers are tackling the questions that matter now. Business is all about being prepared for the tough questions. Ensure that you are looking at the right ERP systems for your business.

Accounting and Operations

The most successful companies today are those that excel at managing their finances, their operations, and their customers. At its core, Sage Accpac Extended Enterprise Suite provides you the tools to outperform your competition in these areas, and more .




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Q2. Explain with an example the concept of supply chain management?

Q3.Differentiate between open Source and commercial ERP. Briefly explain the key principles to a proper ERP system selection process.


Here is the comparison between Commercial and Open Source ERP software systems. This study has been made considering different parameter. Study concludes commercial erp softwares are suitable only for big corporations and open source business software should be the choice of small and medium

Q4. What is ATO and how is it different from ETO? List the advantages of CAD/CAM.



Assemble-to-Order (ATO)

A business production strategy where products ordered by customers are produced quickly and are customizable to a certain extent. The assemble-to-order (ATO) strategy requires that the basic parts for the product are already manufactured but not yet assembled. Once an order is received, the parts are assembled quickly and sent to the customer.



Q5. How does the plant maintenance module help in achieving competitiveness? Write a note of Quality Management.


5 Ans:

The achievement of outstanding performance demands delivery of quality products expeditiously and economically.


Q6. Explain the working of Warehouse Management and Purchase department with an example.


6 Ans:


The evolution of warehouse management systems (WMS) is very similar to that of many other software solutions.  Initially a system to control movement and storage of materials within a warehouse, the role of WMS is expanding to including light manufacturing, transportation management, order management, and complete accounting systems.  To use the grandfather of operations-related software, MRP






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  SET 2              


Q1:What is web ERP? What are its benefits? List out the different modules under ERP Inventory management

Web ERP has become a necessity for businessmen to be aware of their stock and inventory from anywhere, at anytime. Web ERP is an absolute web-based ERP system that requires only a web browser and PDF reader. It has now become an open source application and is offered as a free download.

Web ERP systems are gaining popularity than ever. It allows businessmen to update their systems in large organisations without the need of installing updates at any remote locations, almost immediately. It provides real time information about finance, inventory, employee management, etc by providing advanced levels of service to consumers and suppliers

8.3.1 Benefits of Web ERP

Web ERP Inventory system has many benefits. Some of them include:

· It processes data on the server side. Therefore, no installation is required on the client machines.

· It provides Multilanguage support; users can view the interface in their preferred language.

· It provides Multi-theme support; users can view the interface in their preferred graphical theme.

· It runs on any web server and suitable for both high speed and low speed internet connections.

· It can be installed on any device that has internet access.

Web ERP is developed using PHP as a web development language. These scripts are developed with stability and ease so that the application becomes readable with a minimum knowledge of scripting in PHP and the structure of ERP.

The logic is made as clear and simple as possible in order to remove any generalisation from the code, and to make it readable for all kinds of employees. It can also be configured easily on any operating system and the processing constraints required are also economical.

Web ERP has many features that make it suitable for maintaining organisations of different sizes. It provides an easy structure of processing by supporting features such as multiple inventory locations and multiple currencies. .Web ERP maintains all records that provide information like, amount of inventory stock available, amount of inventory ordered, amount of inventory sold, and amount of inventory that is defective.

ERP Inventory management module takes care of transactional workflow in an organisation in sequential order. ERP Inventory module is subdivided into different modules such as:

Inventory requisition: The function of inventory requisition is to take the inventory constraints from various departments of an organisation. This is achieved when various departments fill the inventory requisition form. On filling the form, the head of the department fills up the quantity/quality of the inventory required, considering the minimum inventory required, maximum inventory required, and the current inventory available.

Inventory order assessment: Once the form is filled, inputs are taken from the form and processed. The inventory wanted by the various departments is compared with the minimum inventory required. Once the comparison is done, the final requirement for various departments is fixed and a list of suppliers for the inventory is then formulated

Inventory placing: Once the supplier is chosen, an order is placed by filling the order form

Supplier Performa: In this sub module, the supplier provides quotation for further transactions

Order received: In this sub module, a comparison between order placed and order received is recorded i.e. a comparison is done between Date of placing order with Date of receiving order, and Quality with Quantity of order placed. Once the comparison is done, the amount to be paid to the supplier and the mode of payment is decided.

· Quality checks: It is necessary to check if the deliverables have met the expected outcome. Therefore, quality check becomes an important phase where Research and Development(R &D) department performs a check and the department head acknowledges it by filling up a quality assessment form.

· Inventory bills and challans: In order to ensure safe payment, bills and challans are chosen to represent the amount paid, payment mode along with the ID of supplier and Receipt ID.

· Minimum inventory assessment: Minimum inventory assessment aims at assessing minimum inventory inputs or requirements from various departments of an organisation. The assessment is done by preparing a Performa which is circulated to various departments and they are expected to fill up their minimum inventory requirements. This assessment is done, considering various factors such as costumers order received, inventory in hand and scrap.

· Minimum inventory requirement: Minimum inventory requirement is the amount of inventory less than which employees cannot work i.e. it is that minimum amount of inventory required to perform any task.

· Maximum inventory assessment: In this sub module an assessment is done for maximum amount of requirements. This information is gathered from various departments to guarantee that no wastage happens. The assessment is done by considering factors such as customers order received, inventory in hand, etc.

· Maximum inventory requirement: It is the amount of inventory which is sufficient to perform any task.

Q2:Briefly explain the functionalities of CRM sub modules. List out the benefits of CRM Systems.



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Sub Modules in CRM

The functionality of a CRM system can be studied under three sub modules. They are Marketing, Service and Sales. All these modules are Operational, Collaborative and Analytical.

Q3:Illustrate the role of ERP systems in Human Resources. List out the benefits of Human Resource management systems.

Human Resource maintains huge volumes of information of employees and becomes complicated and difficult for management. Therefore, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) that maintains a centralised database is a powerful tool that can be deployed to maintain an efficient processing.

Q4:Describe how you would go about the different phases of the ERP implementation lifecycle, if it were being done in your company

One important factor that must be realised is that the post-implementation phase is very critical. Once the implementation is over, the vendors and the hired consultants will go. To reap the full benefits of the ERP system, it is very important that the system must get enterprise-wide acceptance. There must be enough employees who are trained to handle the problems that might crop-up. There must be people, within the company, who have the

Q5:Discuss briefly about JD Edward’s and PeopleSoft’s applications and their various modules


PeopleTools is an integrated set of client/server business application development and customisation tools from PeopleSoft. These tools enable customers to implement, modify, and maintain PeopleSoft applications as well as to extract, analyse and manipulate data.

Q6:What is BAPI? Why BIAP is considered as commanding tool in the SAP consultant’s toolkit


BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) is a set of interfaces to object-oriented programming methods that enable a programmer to integrate third-party software into the proprietary R/3 product from SAP. For specific business tasks such as uploading transactional data, BAPIs are implemented and stored in the R/3 system as remote function call (RFC) modules.[2]



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Q.1. Explain the framework of e-Commerce in detail.



Electronic Commerce Framework

A framework can be defined as a structure for supporting or attaching something else, particularly a support that is used as the foundation for something being created. Hence, an e-commerce framework comprises the set of infrastructure required for carrying out the e-commerce business. This set of infrastructure typically includes the network requirements and the different software applications that are for e-commerce.

The e-commerce vision summarised above assumes a series of essential infrastructure services and values steady with a broad architectural framework. This framework must allow flexibility, interoperability and directness necessary for the successful development of electronic commerce. The e-commerce framework offers a set of options to the customers. Most of the electronic commerce plans have different strategies for security and privacy, their skill to deal with the payments, and their usability to different transactions. They also vary in their business models. Such variations promote innovation and allows for supplier and customer options. But yet, you need a broad framework to gain wide acceptance. This includes the following requirements and peculiarities of carrying out various business forms in this upcoming electronic environment.

Interoperability: Electronic commerce is based on a common set of required services and standards that allow interoperability. Service providers and application designers use these services and standards as building blocks. They achieve the goals and objectives of e-commerce by combining, enhancing and customising these building blocks as per the requirements.

Maximum flexibility for innovation: The innovation in e-commerce will grow and be established in ways that are impossible to visualise. This will result in evolution of new services and businesses. We can already see that many electronic marketplaces are giving rise to new openings for new services and businesses. Existing services and products will be specified and adapted. Hence, the electronic commerce framework plays a vital part in adapting the changes and then later dealing with the new applications.

Information-intensive products: It is observed that the most important set of products that are sold through e-commerce are the pure information products. For example: electronic journals, catalogues, videos, interactive video games, software programs, electronic coupons, and so on. They also include electronic keys to cars, hotel rooms, storage sections, and airport boarding gates. Some of these products can be designed or modified by a customer. For example, customers want their own selection of articles to be attached in an electronic book, or modify their own clothing designs. This capability calls for a customer-driven activity — a design phase, to the purchase cycle. Hence, it is necessary to have all the activities in the process of the transaction — designing, customising, ordering, billing, payment and distribution tightly integrated and happening simultaneously.

New revenue collecting techniques: We already know about the traditional techniques of revenue collection, for example, payment upon receipt, advance payment, and so on. At present, electronic commerce supports more improved methods of revenue collection. For example, an information product service provider will allocate the product broadly and then charge on a usage basis – which means charging the customer only when the information is used. This information can be a software program, a digital record, or an electronic key used to open and start a rental car.

Meterware is a new strategy implemented in recording and billing customers constantly depending on their product usage. Along with Meterware, electronic cash and cheques also help in gaining new customers and sharing products.

Legacy systems: The legacy systems that are prevailing in electronic commerce field include mainframe-based agreement, paper cheques, and payment systems, and so on. An electronic commerce infrastructure gains success only when it allows the user to easily shift from traditional systems to innovative, electronic systems, and applications and processes.

Transaction devices: e-Commerce dealings include different kinds of legacy and recently formed devices, media, and systems over which transactions take place. Hence, it is necessary that e-commerce adapts the technologies and devices required for reaching and maintaining the mass market.

We can conclude that an electronic commerce framework developed with all of these needs and considerations in mind will form a strong basis for an extremely useful and effective electronic commerce infrastructure.

Selecting the best e-commerce framework

Deciding on the best e-commerce framework is one of the major challenges for any organisation. The framework should be selected based on the three evaluation points:

· Features.

· Requirements.

· Luxuries.

Figure 1.1 explains the three evaluation points of e-commerce framework.


Figure 1.1: Three Evaluation Points of e-Commerce Framework

Features are those elements of the framework that make it more prominent and clear from other offerings.

Requirements are the basic requirements of the framework that allow it to do its work. If one among these is lost, then it becomes difficult to use a particular framework, even with the presence of any other features.

Luxuries are the components whose presence is not so important, but they are required to make the case for a framework that comes at a bonus price. The luxury components add something extra to the system to make it worthy of the premium price. The three important factors to look for in any
e-commerce framework are:

· Template management.

· Core framework functionality.

· Search engine features.

The framework should be adaptable in order to be able to cope with future evolution of the site and market. At the same time, it should be able to support the existing business and make it as easy as possible.

You cannot create content that will be suitable for submission to search engines, unless you achieve good integration with search engine optimisation functions. Failing to do so will lead to your site creator spending considerable time preparing submission pages instead of making use of that valuable time for extending the site.

So long as you can balance between the cost and the benefits, it is worth paying the extra amount to have a framework that saves you from all that work involved in maintaining the infrastructure and processing payments. The end result is profitability, as expensive manual work is removed from the process.

Electronic commerce and media convergence

By now you must be familiar with the e-commerce framework. Let us now discuss the role of media convergence in e-commerce.

Media Convergence[3] is a process of interlinking of computing and information technology organisations, telecommunication networks, and content providers from various media. These media include journals, newspapers, music, television, radio, and entertainment software. Media convergence conveys jointly the “three Cs” and they are computing, communications, and content.

Convergence happens at two major levels:

1. Technologies: Creative content is transformed into industry-related digital forms for delivery. This is done via broadband or wireless networks to exhibit on various computer or computer-related devices and also on cellular telephones to personal digital assistants (PDAs) to digital video recorders (DVRs).

2. Industries: Companies that are spread all over the business spectrum starting from media to telecommunications to technology, combine or create strategic agreements. The purpose of these alliances is to expand new business models that can yield profit from the emerging customer expectations of availability of content.

We all are aware that there is a rapid growth with respect to usage of electronic applications and the internet and people, all over the world, have entered the digital age because of technological development. Most of the media-related organisations are experimenting with new openings and concerns — afforded by what is termed as “convergence”. The act of combining together of different media and integrating new personalised services is both inspiring and overpowering.

The implementation of high-quality computers, changing to digital platforms, and formation of high-speed computer networks has helped us with new ways of doing things. The old explanations that provided division between TV, Radio, Cable, Newspapers, and Films are gone forever. During 1990’s, there was evolution of ownership convergence which resulted in creation of media-based multinational companies. For example, Disney, Viacom, Sony, and so on. From the customer’s perspective, the Internet has also changed our favourite delivery systems, which include newspapers that provide video and TV that offer interactive conversations, and radio that offers web-cams.

Media convergence has a major part to play in the field of e-commerce and information technology. Media convergence is particularly a blending of television, personal computer, and telecommunications. This helps in providing a high-speed Internet access, traditional television programs and interactive services in a single box. The convergence at a technological level will facilitate audio, video, and data to be conveyed to customers using a single pipeline. This pipeline may be in the form of wire which could be cable or DSL, or may be wireless. This will help the customers to not only access the Internet from a single box, but also access high-speed networks through various access points including TVs, PCs, mobile phones and other mobile devices, public booth, and home appliances.









Q.2. List the advantages and disadvantages of e-Commerce.



With the Internet acting as an emerging technology, e-commerce is the most important aspect that has gained more prominence in the recent times. Electronic commerce involves execution of business via the Internet with the help of computers that are connected to each other as a network. In simple words, e-commerce is a process of purchasing and selling of products and services and funds transfer via digital interactions.





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Q.3. Prepare a scenario on the organization having shopping cart facility showing the advantages and disadvantages of having shopping cart facility.


Commerce software

The best example for e-commerce software is shopping cart software. Shopping cart acts as a major factor that helps in distinguishing online and offline shopping. A shopping cart is the major essential component for online shopping.


Q.4. Give examples for different models of ecommerce and explain what is the benefit of that model in your example.

Answer: –

Business Models

Let us now discuss the various business models that have emerged since the birth of e-commerce.


Q.5.  Write short notes on

a. False and malicious sites

b. Stealing visitor’s credit card information

c. Stealing customer’s data from selling agent and internet service providers

d. The use of cookies



a)      False or malicious web sites

The basic idea behind building the false or malicious web sites are for stealing visitors’ IDs and passwords, stealing credit card information, spying on a visitor’s hard drive, uploading files from


Q.6. Describe the risk management paradigm in brief.


Risk Management Paradigm

In the previous section, we discussed about the disaster recovery plan. In this section, let us discuss about the risk management paradigm.



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Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester IV

MI0039 — eCommerce – 4 Credits

Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Warigon is a retail company and they want to automate the payment system. Assume that you are the design engineer of that company. What are the factors that you would consider while designing the electronic payment system?

The following factors like non technical in nature, that must be consider while designing the electronic payment system for the retail company to automate the payment system:

Privacy. A user expects to trust in a secure system; just as the telephone is a safe and private medium free of wiretaps and hackers, electronic communication must merit equal trust.


– Security. A secure system verifies the identity of two-party transactions through “user authentication” and reserves flexibility to restrict information/services through access control. Tomorrow’s bank robbers will need no getaway cars-just a computer terminal, the price of a telephone call, and a little ingenuity. Millions of dollars have been embezzled by computer fraud. No systems are yet fool-proof, although designers are concentrating closely on security.


– Intuitive interfaces. The payment interface must be as easy to use as a telephone. Generally speaking, users value convenience more than anything.


– Database integration. With home banking, for example, a customer wants to play with all his accounts. To date, separate accounts have been stored on separate databases. The challenge before banks is to tie these databases together and to allow customers access to any of them while keeping the data up-to-date and error free.


– Brokers. A “network banker” -someone to broker goods and services, settle conflicts, and facilitate financial transactions electronically-must be in place.


– Pricing. One fundamental issue is how to price payment system service. For example, should subsidies be used to encourage users to shift from one form of payment to another, from cash to bank payments, from paper: based to e-cash. The problem with subsidies is the potential waste of resources, as money may be· invested in systems that will not be used. Thus investment in systems not only might not be recovered but substantial ongoing operational subsidies will also be necessary. On the other hand, it must be recognized that without subsidies, it is difficult to price all services affordably .


– Standards. Without standards, the welding of different payment users in different networks and different systems is impossible. Standards en at interoperability, giving users the ability to buy and receive information, regardless of which bank is managing their money. None of these hurdles are insurmountable. Most will be jumped within t next few years. These technical problems, experts hope, will be solved as technology is improved and experience is gained. The biggest question concern how customers will take to a paperless world.


the e? yw?[ ?U mesh of interconnected data highways of many forms: telephone wires, cable TV wires, radio-based wireless-cellular and satellite.


Far from complete, the I-way is quickly acquiring new on-ramps and even small highway systems. The numerous constructors are either in competition with or in alliance with one another, all in an effort to convince traffic to use their on-ramps or sections of the highway because, like toll ways, revenues in e-commerce are based on vehicular traffic, in our case, vehicles transporting information or multimedia content. The myriad transactions among businesses means that the ultimate winner must select the technology for the I-way that best matches future business needs by using today’s tools. Building an access road to a ghost town or a highway too narrow to handle the traffic will yield equally little return on investment for those who have been less successful at matching needs with the infrastructure.


Building the various highways is not enough. Transport vehicles are needed, routing issues must be addressed, and of course, the transportation costs must be paid. On the I-way, the nature of- vehicular traffic is extremely important. The information and multimedia content determines what type of vehicle is needed. A breakdown of potential everyday e-commerce vehicles into their technological components shows that they vary widely in complexity and may even need to travel different routes on the I-way, much the way an eighteen-wheeler may be restricted from traveling roads that cannot accommodate it:



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Movies = video + audio


Digital games = music + video + software


Electronic books = text + data + graphics + music + photographs + video.


Final pillar on which the e-commerce framework rests is technical standards without which the impact of this revolution would be minimized. For e.g., returning to our analogy with traditional transportation systems, railroad would not have flourished had each state established a separate track standard (meter gauge versus broad gauge, for example) and goods would have to be constantly moved from one train to another every time the standard changed, as they do today at the border between Russia and Western Europe. Similar differences in standards exist today in electricity distribution (110 versus 200 volts) and video distribution(Sony Beta versus VHS), limiting worldwide use of many products.


Standards are crucial in the world of global e-commerce, to ensure not only seamless and harmonious integration across the transportation network but access of information on any type of device the consumer chooses-laser disc, PCs, portable hand-held devices or television + set-top boxes (cable converter boxes) and on all types of operating systems. For example, without the adoption of video standards, video conferencing will never become widespread, as each manufacturer will attempt to develop equipment that maximizes their short-term profits rather than working toward customer goals such as interoperability. While we have strived to limit our initial discussion of the elements of a framework for electronic commerce to an understanding of what part they play within this complex network, it is no accident that we have ended with a convergence of technical, policy, and business concerns. The concept of “convergence” is essential to the operation of the Information Superhighway and to the way the business world is gearing up to deal with it. It is only fitting that we preface our discussion of the one element of our framework we have not yet discussed in detail-e-commerce application them selves with a clarification of the concept of convergence.


Q.2 Discuss the working concepts of EDI


Answer: Working concepts of EDI discuss the step by step process:

1. Preparation of electronic documents: The first step in any sequence of Electronic Data Interchange is the collection and organisation of data by ABCs internal application systems. Instead of printing out purchase orders,


Q.3 What are the four Ps of marketing? Explain how it is applied to internet marketing


Answer: The four Ps – Product, Price, Place and Promotion are widely used to divide marketing. Let us now discuss the four Ps in terms of e-marketing in order to understand the full significance of the internet in marketing.


Product: Various factors have to be thought upon by online marketers with respect to the products they sell. The

Q.4 Analyze the structure of a website

Answer: The website structure is similar to the human skeleton or nervous system. A website is connected through a network of links into something that provides form and function to the site. In order to analyse the web



Q.5 List the benefits of online catalogue

Answer:  An online catalogue is a list or itemised display, as of titles, course offerings, or articles for exhibition or sale, usually including descriptive information or illustrations. It is a time saving tool that provides valuable information to the prospective customers about your product specifications. It facilitates the potential customers to locate the products according to their specifications.

Q.6 Define m-commerce?  Describe the areas of potential growth and future of m-Commerce?


Answer:  m-commerce does not have any precise definition. m-Commerce and its definition varies from every individual. m-Commerce is called as next generation e-commerce. The process of buying and selling of goods and



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Q1. Define the term technology. Write a short note on evolution and growth of technology.

Answer: –

Technology is derived from the Greek word “technologia” in which “techne” means craft and “logia” means saying. On the whole, technology means having the knowledge of making something.

The term ‘technology’ refers to knowledge, processes or products of technological activities, according to the context in which it is used, and the term management refers to the act of getting people together to achieve a specific goal. Management refers to the process of planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling the activities in an organisation.

Thus, we can say that management of technology/technology management includes the factor of technology in all the activities like planning, organising, resourcing and leading the organisation.


Evolution and Growth of Technology

In the previous section, we learnt about the concept and meaning of technology. Now, we will discuss about the evolution of technology, before going to the other topics about technology. The history of technology dates back to the time when humans were able to prepare some simple tools with easily available natural resources. History indicates that the advancement in technology had a major leap with the invention of the wheel. From the invention of the wheel, much usage of the technology has started. The technology in all the fields has grown to a larger extent and now we can see the technology involved in almost all the things we use in our daily life.

We know that there are some advanced technologies at present which include the printing press, telephone and Internet which have helped us to communicate all over the globe.

Till now we have mainly concentrated on technology management in general. Now let us learn about technology management in India.

Technology management in India

The Government of India is mainly focussing on the development of science and technology in the present world. The Indian industries are operating under the controlled and regulated economy. The technology management is generally lacking at the enterprise level except a few enterprises. There are many Indian companies which are able to develop and produce the internationally competitive products. The companies which use different kinds of technologies, and are excelling today, in India are the Punjab tractors, tata automobiles, amul food and certain drug and chemical industries. In the same way, there are many Research and Development (R&D) institutions which have developed and commercialised the technologies in the areas of drugs, chemicals, food technology, and computer software.

The productivity of the Indian industries largely depends on the technologies that are imported. Most of the technologies that are used in the Indian industries are cost effective.

In July 1991, government of India introduced the new industrial policy that mainly focussed on international competitiveness, quality, efficiency and exports. This helped in the change in operating environment of the Indian industry. Because of this, very well planned technologies were developed at the enterprise level.

These days, the companies are paying more attention on technology in order to be more competitive in the business market. It is not only the large scale industries that require the technology management; even the small scale industries also need a technology management to face the competitive world of today.


Q2. Citing an example, state and explain the reasons that compel a company to go for the new technology.


Reasons Compelling a Company for Obtaining a New Technology

The use of new technologies plays an important role in the industry. Whenever a company wants to adapt the new technologies, it has to make decisions related to the acquisition of the technology. The company has to see the experience of its R&D for the actual need of acquiring the knowledge. The acquisition of technology becomes critical when the market lead time and competition is more. The following explains the reasons that compel the company for technology acquisition.




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Q3. Describe some characteristics of technology forecasting. Explain in brief about the six phases in technology forecasting process.


Generally, ‘forecasting’ refers to the prediction of future on the basis of available information. In the early days, traditional forecasts used to deal with the speed and power. They did not focus on the structures of the organisation. It was assumed that inventions of the future are not easy to predict. The forecasters were not focussed on evaluation of the forecast


Q4.Write a short note on technology strategy. Explain in brief about the innovation management.



Let us first understand the concept ‘technology strategy’.

We know that a strategy is a long term view that describes a high level framework. This high level framework describes where the organisation needs to be in the future years.







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Q5. What is the importance of technology diffusion? What are the benefits of technology absorption?


Importance of technology diffusion

Technology diffusion plays a major role in most of the countries today. The barriers to


Q6. Explain the implementation of new technology. Briefly describe the automation decisions.


Implementation of New Technology

We know that planning is the key to success of a project. In the same manner, a sound planning is essential for the success of any technology’s implementation. The failures that are likely to arise during the implementation


Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester IV

MI0040 — Technology Management

Assignment – Set- 2


Q1. Explain Technology Generation. Explain Technology Development. Discuss the importance Technology Generation and Development.


Answer:  Technology Generation:

We will start our discussion with the meaning of technology generation.

Technology generation and development is often identical with the term “Research and Development (R&D)”. However, technology generation involves R&D efforts, while technology development involves further stages of translating R&D efforts into marketable products, processes and services. Basically, we can consider the R&D process as having four distinct stages as shown in figure




Stages of R & D Process


The development” includes creation, design and production and marketing of the generated idea. Through the entire process, its ideas and knowledge which are being followed, and the process is not complete, until the new idea is converted into a marketable product or service, which can be a hardware or software intensive technology.


Corporate R & D and R&D Projects:

Corporate research and development is the principal corporate asset for long-term technological competitiveness. We can classify corporate research activities by the purpose of the research:

To support current businesses.

To provide new business enterprise.

To explore possible new technology basis.


The R&D projects tend to go through the following stages:

Basic research and invention.

Applied research and functional prototype.

Engineering prototype and testing.

Production prototype and pilot production.

Product testing and modification.

Initial production and sales.



As we are discussing about the technology generation, let us now discuss about the process of technology generation.

Let us have a look at an illustration of the various inputs required for generation of technologies in Figure




Process of Technology Generation


In the figure, goals, surroundings, criteria and resource allocation are some of the inputs to R&D, the output of which is technology. The input resources into R&D organisations are the traditional inputs such as money, materials, facilities, energy, labour and management, and the intelligence-based inputs such as science, knowledge, skills, information and existing technologies. The effectiveness of any R&D is determined in terms of the ‘usefulness’ of the technologies it produces with respect to the overall objectives of the corporation

Besides these factors, the R&D or technology generation involves many other aspects such as, monitoring and evaluation of R&D projects, funding of R&D, training and development, resource personnel, interactions at all levels, management policies and support, the availability of support structures and incentives at government level, timely collection and interpretation of technical and other information. The quality of resource leadership and commitment of the top management for research is extremely important. In Indian industry or corporate sector, it is generally observed that the research personnel occupy secondary place to finance, marketing and production personnel, and are not given due importance in decision-making at corporate level. Sometimes, inefficient personnel from other departments are posted or transferred to R&D department, thereby indicating a complete neglect of R&D concept. Such management attitudes need to be changed in the overall interest of the company.




Importance Technology Generation and Development:


In-house R&D: Technology development activities are generally carried out through setting up of separate in-house R&D units within the business, managed and headed by a well-qualified and experienced chief, directly reporting to the top management. However, this unit has close interactions with other departments within the company and there could even be exchange of personnel among different departments. The strength and facilities in the in-house R&D unit would depend upon the technology policy of the company and the nature of the business. In large companies, there are sometime R&D labs for each department and a central R&D lab for major R&D projects. Industrial R&D is mostly product or process oriented with specific objectives and time schedule; and not basic research. Incremental developmental efforts or import substitution efforts are generally common in most of the industries in developing countries including India, while emphasis is on new technologies or new applications of technologies in advanced countries.


Co-operative R&D: A group of companies in a particular industrial sector promotes an R&D centre as a society or a non-profit making company. The R&D is funded by the participating companies and the government. This R&D centre undertakes R&D as per the requirements of the companies in their larger interest, and sets up expertise and facilities of common nature and which are usually expensive. A company can also support specific projects to this centre. Cooperative research facilities are normally utilised for the projects which are not of cautious nature from the business point of view. Otherwise, most important part of the R&D can be done at the centre and the remaining part involving finer details or critical technological aspects affecting the competitiveness is done at the in-house R&D division of the company.


Contract research: A company may contract components of technology development to suitable R&D organisations, academic institutions, or consultants or experts. The in-house R&D unit may coordinate the progress of the activities, to develop the desired technologies. This approach usually requires considerable internal technological and managerial capabilities coupled with a strong Science and Technology (S&T) information base.


R&D collaboration: A company may collaborate with another company in areas of common interest, if costs of development are high. Such inter-firm collaborative R&D efforts are becoming common in developed countries mainly due to high costs and shorter technology life cycles. It is found in areas such as micro-electronics, materials, information technologies, bio-technologies, and so on. A firm may also collaborate with the public funded or privately funded R&D institutions on case-to-case basis, where R&D results are shared mutually, and so are the expenses. A company in India may even collaborate with another company or R&D institution abroad, on mutually agreed terms.


Research societies: Large corporations or industrial houses may set up independent research societies, in addition to their in-house R&D units. Such societies may undertake R&D activities mostly relating to the broad interests of the promoting companies in line with the national interests. They will also take advantage of those facilities for the activities and programmes in their in-house R&D unit. Governments usually encourage such societies and provide several tax concessions and financial incentives.


Research companies: Large firms of technology innovative industrialists may support research companies, specifically for conducting research and development of technologies for others on commercial basis. The development costs and reasonable profits are recovered from the sale and transfer of technologies. Such a concept is common in USA, and other developed countries while it is yet to gain recognition in developing countries such as India. A company may adopt any of the approaches or a combination of the approaches depending on its needs and resources.


Q2. Explain the dimensions of technology transfer and features of technology package.

Answer: Basically technology transfer is categorised into passive and active modes. The modes of technology transfer refer to the transferors role in the application of technology to solve the users problem. The technology transfer is called active, if the transfer methods assist the



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Q3. Briefly describe the concept of technology choice. List and explain the steps involved in technology assessment process.

Answer: Technology choice:

Choice of technology has significant involvement in growth and productivity of an organisation. The use of technology is always related to an objective. Because we can use different types of technologies to realise an organisation’s goals

Q4. Briefly explain the factors influencing the high performance innovative technology based organisations.

Answer: International competition, shorter product lifecycles and increasingly challenging customer satisfaction are creating significant problems for the creation of innovative organisations.


Q5. What is Research and Development (R&D), and how is it managed? Explain the different categories of Intellectual Property Management.

Answer: Research and Development (R&D):

Research and Development also known as R&D, is typically the creation and execution of new product ideas. The research part of R&D refers to the planning and examining stage of creating a new product or upgrading an existing product. The development part involves the process of designing and testing the effectiveness of the new product or product improvement.

Q6. Discuss the technology assessment and environmental impact analysis.



Technology should become self-evident that each technology assessment should answer the question does this technology intrude in any way upon the problem areas of technology? If so, is the impact beneficial or, if it not, can the technology be altered so as to make a more positive contribution to the solution of a problem? And if that is not possible, can the negative impact be used in a better way? Or should the technology be dropped?



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MBA IS- 4th SEM MI0041 — Java & Web Design

Assignment Set- 1



 Q.1. Explain the browser components and its features.



Browser components

Now let us learn the architecture of a Web browser with the help of reference architecture. This reference architecture is the basic architecture for Web browsers and helps you to easily understand the various components that exist in the Web browser.


Figure 1.1: Main Components of Browser[1]

As shown in the figure 1.1 the Web browser consists of seven main components, each having a specific task to perform and they are:

· User interface: It consists of an address bar where you can enter the URL, bookmark menu to save the links of your favourite Web pages, back/forward button to navigate to the previous Web page/next Web page, and so on.

· Browser engine: It is the interface through which you can ask questions to the browser and manipulate the rendering engine. It also sets the layout of a Web page formatted with HTML tags within a browser.

· Rendering engine: It is displays the content you had requested, after obtaining it from the respective Web server.

· Networking: It is used for calling the network for example, raising an HTTP request for a URL connection through the server.

· Display backend: It provides drawing tools, user interface widgets, and fonts that help to display text and graphics.

· Javascript interpreter: It is used to parse and execute the codes of written using the Java script (refer Unit 6).

· Data storage: This enables the browser to save all the data on the hard disk and acts as the database of the browser.

Features of browser

Now that we have learnt about the components of a browser, let us now study some of the most important features of a browser. The figure 1.2 shows the screen shot of the Microsoft’s Internet Explorer Web browser. The arrows point to the features that are available on the Web browser along with the name of the corresponding feature mentioned at the other end of the arrow.


Figure 1.2: Web Browser and its Features

From the figure 1.2 you can see some of the features that are present as icons or buttons on a Web browser. If you do not find it as a button you can find the same in one of the menus provided in the menu bar. Let us now briefly discuss the features that are mentioned in the figure 1.2:

· Address field: This is the area on the browser window where you enter the Web page address or URL. At the right end of this area, there is a small arrow pointing towards the menu bar, when you click this arrow you will view a list of some of the Websites that you have visited recently. When you click on these URLs you will view the respective Website or else you can directly enter the address in the address field. After you enter the address you can either press “Enter” or click on the “Go” button (which is present next to the downward facing arrow button in some browsers).

· Back and forward buttons: The back button is used to go back to the previous page that you have opened in a particular browser window. The forward button allows you to view pages that you have previously viewed in that browser window. In some browsers, there is a small arrow pointing towards the menu bar arrow right next to these buttons, when you click this arrow you will see the list of Websites that you have visited after opening the browser window.

· Home button: When you click this button you will be able to view the page that you have set as home page. A home page is a default page that opens when you open the browser window.

· Menu bar: A menu bar is a part of each browser window, it contains menus like File, Edit, View, Favourites or Bookmarks, Tools and Help.

· Refresh or reload: When you click the refresh or reload button, the page is updated. For example, if you think that the contents of a browser window may have changed since the last time you viewed it, you can click this button to update the page.

· Security indicators: At the left corner of the window, a lock icon appears when you use a browser and this is called padlock. If the padlock is in a lock position then you can say that your server connection is secure, i.e. the data being sent and received by the server is encrypted. This indicates that nobody else can access this data. There is another way to find out whether your browser is secure or not and that is done by looking at the URL. If the URL of your Website begins with “https://” for example, you enter an address “” in the address field and press enter or click “Go” then automatically the address changes to “” indicating that your browser connection is secure.

· Status bar: This is a bar at the bottom of the browser window which indicates the URL of the Web page currently being loaded into the browser window. It also displays the URL of the link on which the cursor of your mouse is placed. While loading, the Web page shows a progress indicator which shows how much percentage of a file has been downloaded.

· Stop button: This button is used to stop the browser from loading the Web page on to the browsing window.


Q.2. Describe in detail the building of webpage.


Building a Web Page

We understood the basic concepts of HTML. Now let us study how to organise the content on a Web page. Building a Web page involves great planning and design. Before you design the Web page it is very important to plan the structure of the Web page and also decide the kind of content that you insert in to the Web page.


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 Q.3.How to use forms? Explain with an example.

Answer :-

 Using a Form

We have learnt about multimedia files and how to insert multimedia files on the Web page. Let us now discuss about HTML forms. You might have signed up to Gmail, Yahoo! or any of the other online communities. When you visit the page, it asks you to fill and submit an online form. We can use the HTML tags to create such forms on Web page. Usually, forms contain input elements like text fields, checkboxes, radio-buttons, submit buttons and so on.


Q.4.Give an example for cascade style sheets and explain editing with cascade style sheets in detail.


Web Page Editing with CSS

In the previous section, we studied about the benefits of CSS and also the methods by which you can apply CSS to HTML documents. In this section we will learn some simple techniques to format your HTML document using CSS.

Now, before discussing about the text formatting let us discuss how you can create styles in a style sheet and incorporate it in the HTML document. This is achieved using the CSS class selector. So, what is this CSS class selector? The class selector is used to specify a style for a group of HTML elements (refer to Unit 2 for HTML elements). Using this you can specify a particular style for any HTML element. Below is an example that helps you understand how to use the class selector.

Q.5. Describe the working of search engine. What are the different types of search engine? Explain with its application.


Working of a Search Engine

You have now learnt the meaning and origin of a search engine. Let us now study about the working of a search engine.



 Q.6.List the benefits and drawbacks of Lamp stack.


Benefits and drawbacks of LAMP stack


Now that you have understood how the LAMP stack originated, we will now discuss the benefits of LAMP stack that has made it popular.


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MBA IS- 4th SEM MI0041 — Java & Web Design

Assignment Set- 2


Q.1 Give one example each for the following and explain the uses

1. Web Design Tools, 2. HTML Editors, 3. Adobe Photoshop, 4. Adobe Flash, & 5. Firebug Browser


1. Web Design Tools: Design for the Web is one of the most significant areas that are emerging in the development of websites. Web design refers to the task of developing a Web page or the user interface of the Web page. The design of a Web page acts as a medium between people and information. The major intention of Web design is in the development of attractive Web pages that reside on Web servers. Web design tools concentrates more on the presentation of contents using hypertext, images, videos, and so on.

There are various tools available today that help us develop and design Web pages. We can term these as design tools. Design tools help us to design attractive Web pages easily and quickly. Some of the popular Web design tools are as follows:

HTML Editors.

Adobe Photoshop.

Adobe Flash.

Firebug Browser.


2. HTML Editors: HTML editor refers to a software application that we can use to create Web pages. It provides us with various tools that are required to design a Website. Even though the HTML files can be written using any text editor such as notepad or textpad, specialised HTML editors can provide convenience and additional functionalities. It not only offers support to work with HTML tags but also provides support to work with technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) and JavaScript. They even help us to handle the interactions that happen with remote Web server through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV). HTML Editor is useful as we need not have to type or remember all the HTML tags. We can say that it is just like the word processor where we type the content and apply the required formats. We can see the HTML source as well as view how the Webpage would look like when viewed on the Web browser, by switching to the display format.


3. Adobe Photoshop: Adobe Photoshop is a software application package useful in editing images and is considered as an important tool for Web designing. It is an excellent tool to create attractive Websites. Photoshop can read and write raster and vector image formats. For example, gif, jpeg and png. An image in raster format is described in a table of pixels, where each pixel has a specific color.

Adobe Photoshop is considered as an image editing tool for Web design as it useful in the following ways:

  1. It helps you to tune your art work to the design of your a Web page on your Website.
  2. It can be used to add graphics to your videos that you might have uploaded on your Website.
  3. It helps to create different types of web banners and buttons that would enhance the look of your Website.
  4. It also helps us to turn an image or photograph look like a work of art, that is, to look like a painting.
  5. It can be used to create a rollover effect to the images or button on your Web pages easily without writing any code by just adding different behaviours to different images or buttons. Here, by rollover effect we mean that we can make a particular area of an image to change when you click or move the mouse over an image.

4. Adobe Flash: Adobe Flash is a multimedia graphics program that is used to create interactive Web pages, videos and animations. It can be embedded inside any HTML program to create interactive Web pages. Other than being used for creating interactive Web pages it is also widely used in games and advertisements.

Adobe Flash helps you to create interactive videos on the Web. It uses vector graphics. Here, vector graphics refers to graphics that can be scaled to any size of our choice without any loss in quality or clarity. We need not have any kind of programming knowledge to use this software as it is very easy to learn. It captures user input through keyboard, mouse, microphone and camera.


We will now look into some of the uses of Adobe Flash. Some of the uses of Adobe Flash are as follows:

  1. It helps us to load Flash movies at a faster pace when compared to animated GIF’s. This is because animated GIF’s includes numerous images saved in one image. Thus when a Web browser loads such an image, the browser may need to load all the frames of the image before display. Therefore, it takes longer time for a GIF image to load.
  2. It helps to create simple animations and buttons quickly and easily.
  3. It supports interactivity. Thus, it helps us to control animations using Flash software. For example, we can begin animating an image after the user clicks on a button.
  4. It is possible to embed the animations created using Flash into a Web page.
  5. It is mostly used in the creation of vector based animations and helps in reducing the file sizes. Reduction in the file size helps to quickly download and play movies on the Web pages.


5. Firebug Browser: Firebug is also an excellent Web development tool, which is an add-on for Mozilla Firefox. It provides us with various tools to inspect, edit, and debug Web pages. This add-on provides us a tabbed interface that facilitates us to edit as well as debug HTML, CSS and JavaScript codes in any Web page. It also offers DOM (Document Object Model) inspection and appraisal related to the performance of Websites.


Some of the uses of Firebug Browser are as follows:

  1. It is very easy to learn the tool as it is user friendly. It also provides you the facility to open the Firebug window within your Web browser, as you saw in Figure 10.1, or as a separate window.
  2. It lets us examine and edit the HTML tags. Whenever there is any change in the HTML code the Firebug highlights the modifications made in yellow.
  3. It even lets you make modifications to the code and see the output of the change instantly.


Q.2 Write a Java program to demonstrate the use of control statements (all three statemnts) in Java.



We know that a program is a collection of statements that are carried out to accomplish a task which was decided in advance. And, in a program, normally the statements are executed in sequential order, which is called sequential execution or sequential control flow.


Q.3 What are the difference types of inheritance in Java? Explain the relationship between interfaces and inheritances.

Answer:  We can define inheritance as the process of inheriting features of one object by another. If we use inheritance, we can easily manage the information about the objects. A super class and its subclasses have an in-a relationship. We can define such relationship using Java inheritance. It means that you can use an object of a subclass (sometimes it is called as

Q.4 How do you handle exceptions in Java

Answer: A Java exception is nothing but an object that defines an exceptional condition, or an error that has occurred in a piece of code. In Java, we can handle this exception by creating an object that represents the exception, and throwing that object into the method that triggered the error. The method may handle the exception by itself or pass on the exception to another method to handle it. In either of the ways, the exception is caught and processed at some point.

Q.5 Write a small snippet in which the program uses POST method to accept the keywords to accomplish the task. Also suggest the alternative method to perform this task and its benefits

Answer: The working of servlets begins when the client or the users Web browser passes a request to the server. The browser uses the HTTP protocol GET method or POST method to pass a request to the server. For example, we can invoke a servlet when we click on the submit button of a form, or by clicking on a hyperlink that is present in a Web page. Once the servlet processes the request, the client or the Web browser gets the output in the form of a HTML page. We have noted that the request made by the client or the Web browser consists of few components.


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