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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1 Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh of Antwerp University, in a paper presented at the Tenth

Anniversary Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management,

presented four revisions to traditional Management Theory. In summary, the revisions are:

(1) The initiative for the renewal and adjustment of the activities of a firm should come from

the different levels in the management hierarchy. “Strategy is not a privilege of top


(2) Firms, especially big firms, are incoherent systems (goals of the different component

systems are not simply subdivisions of an overall goal; there are individual, conflicting goals

as well).

Some of these differences are manifestations of organizational initiative and vitality. Using

information systems and central planning and rule-making to suppress all differences is

destructive to organizations.

(3) The most vital “fluid” of an enterprise is the aggregate of its entrepreneurial values. The

most fundamental and motivation and control come through these shared values relative to

work, quality, efficiency, etc. Management often neglects these values and assumes that the

collection and dissemination of information will provide sufficient motivation and control.

(4) Enterprises are open systems; their structure and operating processes are determined by

their environment. This means organizations must be designed to continually adjust to the


a. If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized? 

b. How should the information system support the planning organization?


Ans : a. Explaining the organizational planning process with diagram


It should be organized by the cooperation, quality work and efficiency. The enterprises should cope up or adjust to the new environment so that all the main goals of an enterprises will be accomplished within the work. The information system should support the planning organization in the form of combing the information system with the planning and rule making of an enterprise. It should be in different values that must be shared all together in order for it to supress all the differences of the ideas and combine the positive





Q.2 Information Technology and Computers have brought information age. The spread of Internet

& relative ease of access made Information Breach easier. Our future is not secure, if our

information is not secure. Information Resources need to be guarded, protected and controlled.

List the precautionary measures to be considered to prevent cybercrime?


Ans : 5 measures to prevent cyber crime :


1. Technical:

There are a variety of different technical countermeasures that can be deployed to thwart cybercriminals and harden systems against attack. Firewalls, network or host based, are considered the first line of defense in securing a computer network by setting Access Control Lists (ACLs) determining which what services and traffic can pass through the check point.

Antivirus can be used to prevent propagation of malicious



Q.3 a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in number of ways.

List and explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewin’s model.

b. Compare between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach


Ans: a. Explaining the 3 steps of implementing the process suggested by Lewin’s model :


For Lewin, the process of change entails creating the perception that a change is needed, then moving toward the new, desired level of behavior and finally, solidifying that new behavior as the norm. The model is still widely used and serves as the basis for many modern change models.




Before you can cook a meal that has been frozen, you need to defrost or thaw it out. The same can be said of change. Before a change can be implemented, it must go through the initial step of unfreezing. Because many people will naturally resist



Q.4 There is an information explosion in today’s society. There are lot of advantages of DBMS

like proper maintenance of the data and maintaining security. Explain the process of data

transition using diagram and an example of your own.


Ans: DFD provides an overview of the data entering and leaving the system. It also shows the entities that are providing or receiving that data. These correspond usually to the people that are using the system we will develop. The context diagram helps to define our system boundary to show what is included in, and what is excluded from, our system.

The diagram consists of a rectangle representing the system boundary, the external entities interacting with the system and the data which flows into and out of the system.

Luckily there are only four different symbols that are normally used on a DFD. The elements represented are:

–             External entities




Q.5 Write short note on 

a. World wide web

b. Voice over IP

c. Intranet 

d. Extranet


Ans: a. World Wide Web :


The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3 commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and at that time employee of CERN, a European research organisation near Geneva, wrote



Q.6 Artificial intelligent system functions like a human being and helps a manager in taking quick

decisions. Explain the different applications AI using diagram.


Ans : 1. Applications of cognitive science :


Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive


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