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Project Management

Summer 2013





Q1. The PMBOK Guide addresses four elements related to scope. List and explain them.

Answer:-The scope is the most important element to understand about any project. All planning and allocation of resources are anchored to this understanding. Scope creep is a significant risk in software development projects. We discuss why this is so, and how to avoid or at least mitigate the risk. New software is usually developed as a result of a customer identifying a need. The next step is to specify how the software will meet that need; specifically, what functionality will be developed. The scope and budget are set, the team knows what they’re delivering, and everyone is ready to begin. The Project Management Institute Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) defines product scope as the features and functions that are to be included in a product or service. It defines project scope as the work that must be done to deliver a product with the specified features and functions. Project scope management is defined as the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.


The PMBOK Guide addresses four elements related to scope:

Scope: Scope is the summation of all deliverables required as part of the project. This includes all products, services and results.


Project Scope:

This is the work that must be completed to achieve the final scope of the project, namely the products, services and end results.


Scope Statement:

This is a document that provides the basis for making future decisions such as scope changes. The intended use of the document is to make sure that all stakeholders have a common knowledge of the project scope. Included in the document are the objectives, description of the deliverables, end result or project, and justification of the project. The scope statement addresses seven questions who, what, when, why, where, how and how money. This document validates the project scope against the statement of work provided by the customer.


Statement of Work:

 The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative description of the work required for the project. The complexity of the SOW is determined by the desires of top management, the customer, and / or user groups. A statement of work describes the actual work that is going to be performed on the project which, when combined with specifications, usually from the basis for a contractual agreement on the project. As a derivative of the WBS, the statement of work (sometimes called scope of work) describes what is going to be accomplished, a description of the tasks, and the deliverable end products that will be produced, such as hardware, software, tests, documentation and training. The statement of work also includes reference to specifications, directives or standards, that is, the guidance to be followed in the project work. The statement of work includes input required from other tasks involving the project and a key element of the customer „s request for proposal there can be misinterpretation of the statement of work which can affect the results of the project adversary.


Common causes of misinterpretation are:


  • Mixing tasks, specifications, approvals, and special instructions.
  • Using imprecise language (“nearly, “optimum”, “approximately” etc.”).
  • No pattern, structure or chorological order.
  • Wide variation in size of tasks.
  • Wide variation in how to describe details of the work.
  • Failing to get third party review.


Misinterpretations of the statement of work can and will occur no matter, how careful everyone has been, the result is creeping scope. Which is likely to upset costs and schedules? The best way to control creeping scope is with a good definition of requirements up front.



The project control process is built on the concepts of integrating data related to scope, performing organization, and cost and of producing performance metrics by assimilating and evaluating all information on a common basis. It is the responsibility of the project manager to integrate the efforts of the assigned human resources, the variety of equipment supplies, and materials and the technologies to produce the project deliverables on schedule within the budget.


The amount of integration a project requires is a function of several factors:


  • The number of components. The more components there are to a project, the more effort that needs to be spent on integration. The team components refers to physical parts or systems, to different functional contributions (e.g. marketing, finance, production), as well as to different vested interests of stakeholders (e.g. environmental impact, economic development, technology transfer).


  • The degree to which the projects components are different from each other.


  • These differences may be differences in functional specialization. For example, marking, production and financial components of a commercial project on the differences may originate from the different technologies used in producing the different components or sub systems of a physical product.


Business need for a Scope change:

 The must be valid business purpose for a scope change. This includes the following factors at a minimum:


  • An assessment of the customer’s needs and the added value that the scope charge will provide.
  • An assessment of the market needs including the time required to make the scope change, the payback period, return on investment, and whether the final product selling price will be overpriced for the market.
  • An assessment on the impact on the length of the product life cycle.
  • An assessment on the competitions ability to initiate the scope change.
  • Is there a product liability associate with the scope change and can it impact over image?


Q2. Write short notes of PERT

Answer:-  A project management tool that provides a graphical representation of a project’s timeline. PERT, or Program Evaluation Review Technique,

Q3. Explain the various planning processes which are part of the risk management knowledge area.


Answer:-  As a PMP I often get questions about what goes into running a project.


Q4. What is an expert system? Explain different parts involved in an expert system.

Answer:-  Expert systems encode human expertise in limited domains by representing it

Q5. Explain four different types of predecessor and the reasons why one task may be dependent on another.

Answer: – The Predecessor dialog enables you to designate one or more phases or tasks that have a dependency relationship with the current phase or task. Supported predecessor types are:

Q6. What is delay analysis and explain its methodology?

Answer:-  Delays are a feature of many construction projects, and frequently

Summer 2013
Q1. Describe the strategy planning tools of Ansoff matrix and BCG matrix.
Answer:-  The Ansoff Matrix, designed by Igor Ansoff, classifies and explains different growth strategies for a company. This matrix is used by companies which have a growth target or a strategy of specialization. This tool, crossing products and markets of a company, facilitates decision making.
Use and factors it considers on The Ansoff Matrix :- Igor Ansoff suggested that business owners’ ability to grow their businesses comes down to how they market new or existing products in new or existing markets. He outlines four distinct strategies:
– Market Penetration — selling more of the same things to more of the same customers
– Market Development — selling more of the same things to different customers
– Product Development — selling new products or services to the same customers
– Diversification — selling new products or services to different customers
Using Ansoff’s matrix, business owners can evaluate each of the growth strategies in turn to assess which is likely to result in the best possible return.
Limitation of Ansoff Matrix:
     Increasing the brand loyalty, this will encourage customers to buy their brand instead of some other. Well known brands use this strategy, such as; Kellogg’s corn flakes.
    Encourages customers to buy the product more regularly.
    The brand may bring out different size quantities of the product, which will encourage customers to buy more of the product.
The Ansoff matrix or Ansoff Growth matrix is an effective marketing planning tool that helps a company or business built an effective product and market growth strategy. According to the According to the Ansoff matrix, a business growth depends upon the factor that whether the business is marketing a new product or the existing product in a new or existing market.
Penetration of the market:The company is trying to expand its sales in the existing market. Existing products are sold to existing customers. The product is not modified but the firm is seeking to increase its revenues by means of promoting or repositioning its products. One has to convince potential clients and divert competitors.
Extension of the market: The company is trying to increase its sales by introducing its products into new markets. A range of existing products is introduced into new markets. Again the product is not modified, it will just be sold to a new target (e.g. through export). By taking into account cultural differences, the products may undergo minor changes.
New products: The Company is increasing its sales by introducing new or modified products on the market. There will be several versions of the product (different styles, sizes …). The new products are sold to the customers through existing distribution channels.
Diversification: In this case the company will launch new products for new customers.

The BCG Growth-Share Matrix is a portfolio planning model developed by Bruce Henderson of the Boston Consulting Group in the early 1970’s. hence the name “growth-share”. Market growth serves as a proxy for industry attractiveness, and relative market share serves as a proxy for competitive advantage. The growth-share matrix thus maps the business unit positions within these two important determinants of profitability.
The four categories are:
1.    Dogs — Dogs have low market share and a low growth rate and thus neither generate nor consume a large amount of cash. However, dogs are cash traps because of the money tied up in a business that has little potential. Such businesses are candidates for divestiture.
2.    Question marks – Question marks are growing rapidly and thus consume large amounts of cash, but because they have low market shares they do not generate much cash. The result is a large net cash comsumption. A question mark (also known as a “problem child”) has the potential to gain market share and become a star, and eventually a cash cow when the market growth slows. If the question mark does not succeed in becoming the market leader, then after perhaps years of cash consumption it will degenerate into a dog when the market growth declines. Question marks must be analyzed carefully in order to determine whether they are worth the investment required to grow market share.
3.    Stars – Stars generate large amounts of cash because of their strong relative market share, but also consume large amounts of cash because of their high growth rate; therefore the cash in each direction approximately nets out. If a star can maintain its large market share, it will become a cash cow when the market growth rate declines. The portfolio of a diversified company always should have stars that will become the next cash cows and ensure future cash generation.
4.    Cash cows – As leaders in a mature market, cash cows exhibit a return on assets that is greater than the market growth rate, and thus generate more cash than they consume. Such business units should be “milked”, extracting the profits and investing as little cash as possible. Cash cows provide the cash required to turn question marks into market leaders, to cover the administrative costs of the company, to fund research and development, to service the corporate debt, and to pay dividends to shareholders. Because the cash cow generates a relatively stable cash flow, its value can be determined with reasonable accuracy by calculating the present value of its cash stream using a discounted cash flow analysis.
–    Market growth rate is only one factor in industry attractiveness, and relative market share is only one factor in competitive advantage. The growth-share matrix overlooks many other factors in these two important determinants of profitability.
–    The framework assumes that each business unit is independent of the others. In some cases, a business unit that is a “dog” may be helping other business units gain a competitive advantage.
.Q2. Describe the approaches used to screen projects.
Answer:- This is basically the purpose of the Approach section of the
Q3. Explain any 3 parameters analyzed during technical analysis of a project.
Answer: –
The analysis for determining the technical viability of the development project is based on the technical data and information given in the PC-I form as well as the earlier experience

Q4. Write short notes on Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS).

Answer:- Cost breakdown is the systematic process of identifying the individual elements that comprise the total cost of a good, service or package. It assigns a specific dollar value
Q5. Briefly explain the different steps or methodologies of project risk management?
Answer:- Introduction:
Risk is inevitable in a business organization when undertaking projects. However,
.Q6. Briefly describe the key project contracts under SPV (Special Purpose Vehicle) for infrastructure projects.
Answer:- In managing and controlling the construction projects, there are two basic features which go hand in hand ‘project management’ and ‘project finance’. In general, most of the people especially

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Summer 2013





Q1. There are several elements which you can take into consideration, while budgeting a project. Explain these elements.

Answer: – The budget should reflect the Principal Investigator’s best estimate of the actual cost of conducting the scope of the work outlined in other sections of the proposal.Budgets for federal contracts and grants should be prepared in accordance with guidelines incorporated with Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 (Cost Principles for Educational Institutions). Other sponsors may have their own specific requirements.


  1. DIRECT COSTS: Direct costs can be easily identified with a particular project, (e.g., salaries for the faculty and staff who conduct the research or the cost of equipment and supplies used in the research), and must be considered reasonable, allocable and allowable to be incorporated into a proposal budget.
  2. Salaries and Wages:
  • The names of all persons who will work on the project. Where positions are not filled, use “To Be Named” or “TBN.”
  • The University payroll title for each academic and staff appointee. For new hires, use the University payroll title and estimate the salary by using the midpoint of the appropriate salary range.

C.   Employee Benefits:

  • Composite employee benefit rates have been compiled for each category of University employee (e.g., academic, career staff, casual staff, students, etc.). These estimated rates should always be used for new positions and can be used for current employees.
  • For current employees, the budget justification should indicate whether the rates are based on published composites or that they reflect historical rates for the individual employees

D. Consultants:

  • The names of consultants should be specified along with daily rate of pay and the number of days each consultant will be paid.
  • Documentation supporting the reasonableness of the daily pay rate should be provided.
  • The costs of travel and per diem, if appropriate, should be specified.

Q2. Explain the different methods/sources to finance a project?

Answer:-  There are three methods in Project Financing:

Q3. Describe any 5 considerations that are crucial in the design of the financing plan for a project.

Answer:- The consideration of ethics in research, and in general business for that matter, is of growing importance. It is therefore, critical that you understand the basics of

Q4.Discuss some of the tools and techniques of Cost Management.

Answer  Types of Tools and Techniques used in cost management:


– Cost aggregation

cost performance baseline.

Q5. Explain the various key determinants of initial project cost.

Answer:- 3.1 Key determinants of initial Project costs: No two infrastructure projects

Q6. Explain any 5 risks associated with project evaluation.

Answer:- THE 5 risks associated with project evaluation :

1 Risk Identification: A risk is any event that could prevent the project from progressing as planned, or from successful completion. Risks can be identified from a


Summer 2013





Q1. What is the selection criteria applied in the selection of a Project Manager?

The most important decisions in project management is the choice of project manager. Many project failures can be traced to bad choices in this area. Conversely, there are projects where so many unforeseen obstacles and problems arose that failure could be expected but the project succeeds because of the leadership and other qualities of the project manager.

Project managers are sometimes qualified and experienced project management specialists who are employed on a permanent basis by an organization. Sometimes they are external consultants who are contracted to manage the project for its duration only. In all cases they are charged with organizing and managing a project team that will work together in order to meet the project objectives.

This section considers the concept of the project manager in relation to that role’s characteristic central position within the organization. It then extends this concept to consider the typical role of the project manager and links it to the skills that are required by an effective project manager.

The Concept of the Project Manager

A project manager is similar to a chief executive or managing director. The project manager owns the project and has sole responsibility for its outcome. In addition, where small to medium sized projects are concerned, the project manager is often responsible for managing several projects concurrently.

The project manager’s role is by its nature a temporary one, superimposed on the organization. It does not have the power associated with traditional hierarchical positions. Project managers must work across functional and organizational lines and frequently have few direct subordinates.

Q2.As a project manager, you will always have projects for which you must procure hardware, software, or services from outside sources. This process is procurement, and the professional project manager must have a basic understanding of the procedure so that he or she can make sure that the organization is getting the right materials at the best cost. To manage procurement, you need to go through a few processes. Explain these processes.

Answer: –  Selecting Vendors : – Selecting, purchasing and implementing

Q3. Discuss the Role of a Project manager in handling conflicts.

Answer; – The Role of a Project manager in handling conflicts

When two or more persons work together in a project for a common goal,

Q4. Describe the structure and content of a CMP.

Answer:- Purpose of the CMP  A CMP may be ordered as part of routine medical exam or physical, or to help diagnose conditions such as diabetes, or liver or kidney disease.


Q5. What are the different methods of forecasting in a project?

Answer:- The different methods of forecasting in a project

A forecast is a statement about how the future will turn out based on evidence or assumptions

Q6. Write short notes on acquiring a Project Team.

Answer;- Definition: Acquiring a Project Team- Aquire Project Team is the process for



Dear Students,

Get your assignments from Our ESTEEMED ORGANIZATION 

Just email to  or  S M S  to +91 9995105420.

message Format – SMU MBA <Name> <E-MAIL ID> <SEM ? >  To +91 9995105420 , we will reach back you with in 24H

Or Directly call our Middle East Office +974 55702886 .

More Info, Kindly visit

Best Regards, Admin

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