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3rd Semester winter 2014

Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”






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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1. Write short notes on:

a. LAN

b. Analog and digital data transmission

c. High level data link control


Ans : a)   Local Area Network (LAN):


These types of computer networks connect network devices over a relatively short distance. Quite often, a networked office building, home or school contains a single LAN although it is normal to come across a building that




b. Analog and digital data transmission :


Analog data transmission:


Analog (or analogue) transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable



c. High level data link control:


High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The original ISO standards for HDLC are:

ISO 3309 — Frame Structure



Q.2. Virtually all networks in use today are based in some fashion on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standard. The core of this standard is the OSI Reference Model, a set of seven layers that define the different stages that data must go through to travel from one device to another over a network. Explain the seven layer architecture of OSI model with diagram.


Ans: OSI reference model :


The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.



Q.3. Consider yourself as the operation head in a telecommunication company. What are the different types of multiplexing techniques will you implement to get efficient data transmission process?


Ans: Multiplexing is a technology to transfer digital or analog data in daily use devices like telephone and television. Here, we discuss the various multiplexing technologies used for data transmission.

Multiplexing is a method of combining multiple analog massage signals or digital data streams into one signal. The objective of this technology is to share an expensive medium for transmitting multiple signals. Actually, the low-level communication signals are divided into high-level logical channels using this technology. Furthermore, each channel is then used for transmitting one message signal or data stream.



Q.4. Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for

Simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Explain the different types of ISDN with their features and advantages for each one of them. (Explaining Two different types , Features of both of them , Advantages of both of them) 2,4,4


ANS: Different types of ISDN :


Integrated services refers to ISDN’s ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of most people’s complete communications needs (apart from broadband



Q.5. ABC company is an internet service provider. The main goal of ABC is to provide 24 X7X365 storage capacity, storage management and internet service to the customers. It now needs a solution that will eliminate downtime. Downtime is nothing but the time during which a computer or computer system is down, or inoperative due to hardware or software failure. We also need the flexibility in quick response to both the development in customer base and additional capacity and service demands of the customers. ABC company took the help of network storage infrastructure software provider to achieve their goals by providing support for end to end redundancy and bondless scalability. By creating a scalable storage network with the ability to confidentially deliver the 24X7X365 reliability, and speed that outsourcing customers demand, it has enabled the ISP/SSP to attract and retain customers and substantially build its business. As the same time, the solution has effectively lowered ABC company’s total cost of ownership for its entire storage solution: the IP Stor/CNP union has enabled a painless, flexible cost effective, scalable solution. The complementary IP Stor/CNT solution has allowed to its customers easily and cost- effectively. a. What were the problem which ABC Company was facing before consulting network storage infrastructure software provider?

b. What were the benefits of implementing a scalable storage network?

c. List the different classes of ISPs and their applications.


Ans : The problems faced by ABC Company after reading the SLM


The important issue to address while choosing connectivity solutions is, whether application servers are being connected to storage or disparate networks are being interconnected. The key factors to be considered are elimination of single points of failure, high scalability, and ease of set up. The FalcoStor’s IP Stor software solution, a leading network storage infrastructure software provider, helped ABC Company to achieve their goal by providing support for End-to-End redundancy and bondless scalability. The ISP/SSP found its high



Q.6. Cryptography is the science of hiding information. The traditional security system employed a different of encryption process known as symmetric cryptography, which involves the use of the same method for both encryption and decryption. Explain the different networking algorithms that are used for cryptography along with its subtypes. (Explaining the two types of cryptography and the networking algorithms used for them)


Ans: Cryptography


Cryptography is derived from the Greek word “Kryptos”, meaning hidden. Cryptography is the science of hiding information. The main issue in using internet applications is maintenance of data and security. The process of cryptography employs an algorithm which in turn uses a numerical value to modify data, making that data secure and accessible only to those who have been assign the authority to handle it.


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”








DRIVE Winter 2013


BK ID B1217



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1 How is DBMS classified based on several criteria? Explain each one of them with few examples where ever required


Ans :  Several criteria are normally used to classify DBMSs. These are discussed below :


1. Based on data model

2. Based on the number of users

3. Based on the ways database is distributed


1. Based on data model:


The most popular data model in use today is the relational data model. Well known DBMSs like Oracle, MS SQL Server, DB2, MySQL support this model. Other traditional models can be named hierarchical data model, or network data model. In the recent years, we are getting familiar with object-oriented data models but these models have not had widespread use. Some examples of Object-oriented DBMSs are O2, Object Store



Q.2 Differentiate between B+ tree and B- tree. Explain them with diagrams


Ans : B+ tree :


A B+ tree is a balanced tree in which every path from the root of the tree to a leaf is of the same length, and each non leaf node of the tree has between [n/2] and [n] children, where n is fixed for a particular tree. It contains index pages and data pages. The capacity of a leaf has to be 50% or more. For example: if n = 4, then the key for each node is between 2 to 4. The index page will be 4 + 1 = 5.

B+-tree Structure. A B+-tree is a generalization of a binary search tree (BST). The main difference is that nodes of a B+ tree will point to many children nodes rather than being limited to only two. Since the goal is to minimize disk accesses whenever




Q.3                  Employee


Emp Id Name Project Salary Dep. no.
MUL 1 Ramya PR 1 40000 1
MUL 2 Nupur PR 1 45000 2
SMU 1 Rajesh PR 3 20000 2
SMU 2 Vinay PR 2 50000 3
SMU 3 Anil PR 2 80000 2


Department :


Dept id D name Place
1 MIS Bangalore
2 HRM Bangalore
3 Finance Chennai
4 Research Bangalore






Using these tables answer the following question

a. If we want to see all the employees with salary between 40000 and 50000, which query can be used?

b. Select employee name from EMPLOYEE table, whose name starts with R

c. Explain aggregate functions and grouping in detail


Ans :  A select query retrieves data from one or more of the tables in your database, or other queries there, and displays the results in a datasheet. You can also use a select query to group data, and to calculate sums, averages, counts, and other types of totals. Query languages are computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems.

Broadly, query languages can be classified



c. Explaining aggregate functions on select statement, with an example


Aggregate functions are used to compute against a “returned column of numeric data” from your SELECT statement. They basically summarize the results of a particular column of selected data. We are covering these here since they are required by the next topic, “GROUP BY”. Although they are required for the “GROUP BY” clause, these functions can be used without the “GROUP BY” clause. For example:




Q.4 What are the problems and failures that may encounter with respect to the transactions in a database management system? Give examples.


Ans :  A transaction is a logical unit of work, which involves may database operations. A transaction is a collection of operations that forms a single logical unit of work. A transaction is a unit of program executions that accesses and possibly updates various databases. Example: Banking system, Student database performs transactions.


Problems  with code :


1. SQL0805N Package package-name was not found




Q.5 Consider any database of your choice (may be simple banking database/forecasting database/project management database). Show the deduction of the tables in your database to the different types of normal forms



Ans : Choosing a proper database  :


The databases chosen is simple forecasting  database.


5 normal forms with respect to the database chosen



Q.6 Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the following questions:

Laxmi bank is one of the largest private sector banks of India. It has an extensive network of more than 200 branches. It offers banking services to retail as well as corporate clients. The bank faced a challenge in integrating multi-pronged database management system into a centralized system. The IT department of the bank also realized that the computing capabilities of its PCs and servers were not proportionately distributed among all its branches. Each branch had its database management system stored in a traditional way on the disk. The total cost of operating and maintaining the current IT infrastructure was very high and the fundamental shortcomings added to the costs. Moreover, there were also recurrent problems due to the malfunctioning of the currently operational database management system. Therefore, the bank’s top management decided to fix the problem and operationalise a robust database management system. The bank hired an external database technology consulting firm called AKPY Info systems Limited. AKPY divided the entire IT infrastructure of the bank around two verticals. The retail banking vertical and the corporate banking vertical. All the individual database servers from the individual branches were removed. The entire database system was made virtual such that the managers and the staff can access only the required information (related to retail banking or corporate banking) from the respective centralised data centers. There were only two such centralised data centers (one for retail banking and another for corporate banking) that were managed centrally. Staff and managers could access the information through their PCs and laptops. Centralised database management system complemented the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server. Managers and officers of the bank were able to process half a million transactions per month in real time after the new implementation. There were significant savings in the cost and also in the consumption of power. Now there were no problems with regard to imbalances in the load across various network servers. Due to centralised data management, top management could keep an eye on the functioning of various branches. Hence the cases of fraud and cheating reduced considerably. The bank managers could also process the loan applications in reduced time since the customer’s previous records could be accessed at the click of the button and approval from the higher authorities could be obtained in real time. Moreover the new system also brought in many applications that helped local managers in the decision making process.


a. List the uses of centralized data management

b. What steps Laxmi bank need to take if it were to change its centralised database system to a distributed database system in future?


Ans : a. uses of centralized data management :


From the above case study it is concluded that centralized data management has following advantages which has made it more useful than the older system :


1. Centralised database management system complements the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server


2  If data is stored and managed in various locations, as the volume of data increases, time and effort, as well as necessary devices to manage all the data must be increased accordingly. If data is gathered at one location and centrally managed,


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”







BK ID B1348



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1. Explain the key benefits of all eight principles of Quality management system. Mention the elements of Quality management system. (Benefits, Elements) 5, 5

Answer  : The eight quality management principles are defined in ISO 9000, Quality management systems Fundamentals and vocabulary, and in ISO 9004, quality management systems guidelines for performance improvements.

This section provides you the standardised descriptions of the principles as they appear in ISO 9000, In addition, it provides examples of the benefits obtained from their use and of actions that managers typically take in applying the principles to improve their



Q.2. Explain the following: a) Design review b) Design verification. 5, 5


Answer :Design review :


A design review is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate how well a potential product (a design) meets all

quality requirements. During the course of this review, problems must be identified and solutions must be

developed. Moreover Design review is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate the suitability, adequacy, effectiveness, and sometimes the efficiency of a set of characteristics or specifications. Design and development review can be used to evaluate product, process, and system characteristics or specifications. In this context, an effective set of characteristics or




Q.3. Explain conformance to requirements with respect to purchasing in ISO 9000. List out the steps followed in implementation of ISO 9000 in compliance to purchasing processes.


Answer:-ISO 9000 — a set of standard series, first published in 1987 by the International Organisation for standardisation (ISO) has become a necessity for today’s every organisation, except for smallest or only local commercial enterprises, since globalisation and liberalisation has become a reality in the world and India too has accepted this. Today we see in market place not only products but also services offered by ISO certified organisations which includes goods on one hand and banks, hospitals, schools etc on the other. We also see products and services from multinational companies



Q4. Explain in-process inspection and testing. Discuss Measurement system analysis (MSA) in QS 9000. (Explanation — 5 marks, MSA — 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer:- In-process inspection and testing are performed to validate the features and characteristics during the assembly or processing of products. The objective hence is to verify and document specifications and requirements that pertain to final product and that it is stable and can continue to meet the specifications and requirements throughout the product run. The product is put into inspection and test as per the quality plan or the other procedures of documentation. The main objective behind this is to identify the changes at various levels of production, especially the context where the characteristics of the products are exposed to measurement. This also makes sure that


Q.5. Explain the audit criteria. Briefly explain the audit process. (Explanation of audit criteria , Explanation of audit process) 4, 6

Answer:-CICA standards require that the practitioner (principal) identify or develop suitable audit criteria that are relevant, reliable (resulting in consistent conclusions when used by different practitioners in similar circumstances), neutral (free from bias), understandable, and complete. They must also be appropriate to the characteristics and activities of the audited entity.


However, the sources of performance audit criteria acceptable to the Office differ from the possible sources described in CICA 5025.38. The Office’s performance audit criteria are not usually derived from (a) “. . . recommendations of the CICA.” Criteria for




Q6. What are the advantages of employee training? What are the different activities an organisation should undertake while training the employees?(Advantages — 5 marks, Activities — 5 marks) 10 marks


Answer :  Advantages of employee training :


1. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees. This has an added benefit of making your company more attractive to prospective employees.


2. More motivated workers, which in turn tends to increase productivity and spur profits.


3. More effective and efficient use of workers’ time as a result of higher skill levels, combined with a better understanding of the job function.


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”




BK ID B1349

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1. Describe the Leadership styles. Explain the various leadership theories. (Leadership styles, Leadership theories) 5, 5

Ans:-A leader cannot be effective unless he possesses certain qualities of head and heart. Irrespective of the nature of the manager-leader’s own responsibilities of the job and the style adopted by him, a number of qualities are generally found to be possessed by the effective leader. The more important of these qualities are listed below:

  • Empathy: A leader must have the
  • Q.2. Explain the following: a) Quality Management Techniques, b) PDCA Cycle   5,5

Answer:-(A) The above mentioned categories are described below (Salegna&Fazel, 1996):


1) Customer-based strategies should be the focal point of every TQM programme, around  which all other strategies are formulated. Customer satisfaction is only likely to be  achieved and maintained when the customer plays an active role in the  organization’s process of quality improvement. Major techniques used to

accomplish this are customer needs analysis, customer surveys and quality function




Q.3. “Quality management principles have to be followed by the organization so as to achieve their organizational goals”. In the light of this statement, explain the principles of Quality Management. (Listing the principles, Explanation) 5, 5


Answers:- “A quality management principle is a comprehensive and fundamental rule / belief, for leading and operating an organisation, aimed at continually improving performance over the long term by focusing on customers while addressing the needs of all other stake holders”.The eight principles are …

1. Customer-Focused Organisation

2. Leadership

3. Involvement of People

4. Process Approach

5. System Approach to Management

6. Continual Improvement

Q.4. a) Explain Explain the concept of process re-engineering. b) Briefly explain CAPA system 5, 5

Answer:-(A)Re-engineering: The basis for many recent developments in management is Re-engineering. Consider the cross functional team (a group of people with diverse functional expertise working towards a common goal) as an example has turn out to be popular due to the desire to re-engineer separate functional tasks into complete cross functional processes. Also, a lot of recent management information systems developments aspire to combine a wide number of business functions. Business process re-engineering is also identified as business process redesign, business transformation or business process change management. Business process re-engineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow inside and between enterprises. BPR reached maximum publicity in the early 1990s when authors Michael Hammer and James Champy published their best-selling book, Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.


Q.5. Discuss the importance of employee involvement for maximizing the quality. Explain the importance of team building for organizations. (Employee involvement and Quality, Importance of Team building) 5, answer:-

 Employee involvement: Empowering your employees and involving them in decision making process provide an opportunity for continuous process improvement. The available ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Employee involvement and quality is depicted. Employee involvement plays a very important role in maximising the quality & productivity, because:


  • Employees make things to happen in a



Q.6. Explain the theories of Motivation and Empowerment. (Theories of Motivation, Theories of Empowerment) 5, 5

Answer:-Theories of Motivation and Empowerment: We begin with the theories of motivation.

According to Chandler (2004, 41-43) the most widely-known theory of motivation was the one developed by Abraham Maslow in his book entitled Theory of Human Motivation typically referred to as the hierarchy of needs. Maslow constructed a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs according to Maslow, a person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first 12 have been satisfied or the third until the second has been


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”



BK ID B1349


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1. “Quality Management System is a complete and planned approach to organizational management”. Describe the various principles of Quality Management Systems. What are the various approaches to Quality Management Systems?

Answer :  Quality management system :

Quality Management System, in the simplest of terms, is defined as “The process of Management of the Systems of an organization, with regard to its Quality related activities, for „meeting and enhancing customer satisfaction‟ and also taking care of  all other interested parties such as legislative and regulatory bodies, shareholders, suppliers,employees, etc.”

A Quality Management System (QMS) is required for any organization which desires to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products that meet both customer needs and the applicable regulatory requirements. Quality Management System is a process that integrates the fundamental management techniques with the principles and methodologies of



Q.2. Explain the scope and goals of ISO/TS 16949.Describe the various benefits provided by ISO/TS 16949. (Scope, Goals, Benefits) 3, 3, 4

Answer :  Scope of ISO/TS 16949 :

The ISO/TS16949 is an ISO technical specification aiming to the development of a quality management system that provides for continual improvement, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain. It is based on the ISO 9001 and the first edition was published in March 2002 as ISO/TS 16949:2002. It was prepared by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) and the “Technical Committee” of ISO. It harmonizes the country-specific regulations of Quality-Management-Systems.

About 30 percent of the more than 100 existing automobile manufacturers affiliate the requirements of the norm but especially the large Asian manufacturers have differentiated, own requirements for the quality management systems of their corporate group and their suppliers




Q.3. Explain the procedures and benefits of SA 8000. (Procedures, Benefits) 5,5

Answer :  Procedures of SA 8000:

SA8000 is an auditable certification standard that encourages organizations to develop, maintain, and apply socially acceptable practices in the workplace. Its procedures regarding various areas are described below :


1. Child Labor:

No use or support of child labor; policies and written procedures for remediation of children found to be working in situation;


2. Forced and Compulsory Labor:

No use or support for forced or compulsory labor; no required ‘deposits’ — financial or otherwise; no withholding salary, benefits, property or documents to force personnel to continue work;


3. Health and Safety:



Q.4. The People CMM is an organizational change model. Explain the maturity levels of

People Capability Maturity Model (People CMM).

Answer :  People CMM :


The People Capability Maturity Model (short names: People CMM, PCMM,P-CMM) is a maturity framework that focuses on continuously improving the management and development of the human assets of an organization. It describes an evolutionary improvement path from ad hoc, inconsistently performed practices, to a mature, disciplined, and continuously improving development of the knowledge, skills, and motivation of the workforce that enhances strategic business performance. The People Capability Maturity Model (People CMMI) is a framework that helps organizations successfully address their critical people issues.



Q.5. Explain the elements and benefits of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS).

Answer:-About OHSAS

Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems is a framework for an organization to establish controls that mitigates health and safety risks, reduces the occurrence of accidents and helps to improve its operational performance. The requirements of OHSAS 18001 were developed from British standard 8800. The following are its goals:

  • It specifies requirements for an occupational health and safety (OH &S) management system.
  • Enables an organization to control its OH & S risks and improve its performance.
  • Many organizations are implementing an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) as part of their risk management


Q.6 what is Business excellence? Explain the core themes of excellence. How to build an excellence framework?

Answer : Business excellence:

Business excellence is the systematic use of quality management principles and tools in business management, with the goal of improving performance based on the principles of customer focus, stakeholder value, and process management. Key practices in business excellence applied across functional areas in an enterprise include continuous and breakthrough improvement, preventative management and management by facts. Some of the tools used are the balanced scorecard, Lean, the Six Sigma statistical tools, process management, the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and project management.

The vast majority of organizations use business excellence self-assessments to identify opportunities for improvement–as well as their areas of strength–


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”





BK ID B1351


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1. Explain the following: a) SWOT analysis, b) Porter’s five force model 5,5

Answer:-a) SWOT analysis –  A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT Matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in a project or in a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place, industry or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. The technique is credited to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies.[1][2] The degree




Q.2. Distinguish between Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Explain the types of qualitative methods. (Differences, Types) 5,5

Answer:-Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods

Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews of documents for types of themes

Surveys, structured interviews & observations, and reviews of records or documents for numeric information

Primarily inductive process used to formulate theory or hypotheses

Primarily deductive process used to test pre-specified concepts, constructs, and hypotheses that make up a theory

More subjective: describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it

More objective: provides observed effects (interpreted by researchers) of a program on a problem or condition





Q.3. Explain the importance of sustainability. Discuss the barriers to sustainability. (Meaning of sustainability, Importance of sustainability, Barriers of sustainability)2,4,4

Answer:-Sustainability. In essence, to sustain is to continue Importance of sustainability, Barriers of sustainabilityour capacity to live life on this planet — to endure. How does that sound to you? To me, that sounds terrible. To endure? Humans are capable of much greater heights then that! So how about if we give this definition another try.

Importance of sustainability

1.            Our Natural Resources Are Preserved:

Our natural resources are dwindling every day due to the increase in the world’s population and change in consumption habits. We thus need to use our natural




Q.4. Explain the areas of Value engineering. Describe the modelling techniques of Valueengineering. (Meaning of Value engineering, Areas of Value engineering, Modelling techniques of Value engineering)

Answer:-During the1940’s Value Engineering emerged in the United States, when a variety of challenging and difficult decisions had to be made with respect to some alternative choices. There was an acute scarcity of critical materials during World War II, which forced manufacturers to find substitute materials. It was first initially conceived by Lawrence D. Miles when he was with General Electric who discovered that if value was methodically managed then General Electric could possibly gain a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Miles understood that the products were bought either



Q.5. “The strategies and elements of Kaizen call for tough efforts for improvement which involve participation of every employee in the organization”. Explain the various elements of Kaizen. List the key features of Kaizen.


Ans:-The word “Kai” refers to “change” and the word “Zen” means “good”. Thus, kaizen is a Japanese word meaning “improvement” or “change for the better” which refers to the beliefs or practises that focus upon the continuous improvement of various processes. Continuous Improvement Process, also termed as kaizen, is defined as a guiding principle that introduces small and minute changes in an operating business in order to enhance the eminence and competence of the process. This approach assumes that human resources are paramount for organisational enhancement and




Q.6. Explain DMAIC and DMADV models. Distinguish between DMAIC and DMADV models. (Explanation of DMAIC model, Explanation of DMADV model, Differences) 4,4,2


Answer.DMAIC model

model in detail:

1. Define: It defines the goals and objectives of the project. It ensures that the goals are consistent with the demands and expectations of the customers and the enterprise strategy. It is the initial step of the six sigma process of the DMAIC model and is the phase responsible for identifying various significant factors such as the scope of the project, expectations and resources required for the project schedule and approvals. It defines the goals of the team and various milestones and


Dear Students,

Winter 2013 -14  Assignments are available. For Booking ,Kindly mail us on OR call us to +91 9995105420 or S M S your “ Email ID ” us in the following Format  “  On +91 9995105420, +966 54 697 6607 we will reach back you with in 24H ”






BK ID B1733



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


1 Distinguish between secretarial audit and cost audit. Write the advantages and disadvantages of continuous and periodical audit.


Answer : What is a Secretarial Audit?

As per the “Reference on Secretarial Audit” issued by Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI), a “Secretarial Audit is compliance audit; it is a part of total compliance management in an organisation. The Secretarial Audit is an effective tool for corporate compliance management. It helps ensure timely corrective measures when non-compliance is detected.”.


What is the main objective of a Secretarial Audit?

The object of a Secretarial Audit is to provide



2 Write the characteristics of internal check system. Explain the essentials of effective internal auditing.


Answer : Internal Check or internal audit is an arrangement of staff duties whereby no one person is allowed to carry through and record every aspect of transactions so that without collusion between two or more persons, fraud is prevented and at the same time the possibilities of errors is reduced to a minimum.

Internal Check is a system or method introduced with defined instructions given to staff as to their sphere of work with a view to control and verification of their work and also maintenance of accurate records as the ultimate aim.




3 The audit firm follows certain policies and procedures. Explain the quality control  policies adopted by an audit firm.

Answer : To fully appreciate the need for the existence of quality control policies and procedures in an audit firm, students should focus on the assertion that auditing is a commercial activity. As such, in order to achieve the objective of (at least) maintaining the profitability of an audit firm, the audit partners need to:


  • make best use of the resources of the firm;
  • maintain a good level of service and quality of advice to clients;
  • minimise the risk of litigation against the



5 Discuss the specific problems of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) relating to internal control.

Answer : Problems of electronic data processing relating to internal control :


1. Separation of duties :


In a manual system, separate individuals are responsible for initiating transactions, recording transactions, and custody of assets. As a basic control, separation of duties prevents of detects errors and irregularities. In a computer system, however, the traditional notion of separation of duties does not always apply. For example, as program may reconcile a vendor invoice against a receiving document and print a cheque for the amount owed to a creditor. Thus, this program is performing functions that in a manual systems would be considered incompatible.




6 Explain the factors for having the effective internal control system for a bank.

Answer : Factors for having the effective internal control system for a bank :


In the private sector, company directors are responsible for determining policy, monitoring performance and taking corrective action if either policy or its implementation is defective.  Internal control provides a means of assurance that corporate objectives are being achieved.  Thus the directors are responsible for internal control.  In practice, the distinction among these categories and types is often difficult to recognize because an effective internal control structure requires elements of each. Even the descriptions of each category of control can vary among individuals. However, regardless of how internal controls are organized or defined, they should not be thought of as alternatives to each other.


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